Society expects males and females to carry through specific gender functions – “attitudes and activities that society links to each sex” . Males are expected to be ambitious. strong. independent and competitory. which “encourages males to seek out places of leading and drama squad sports” . And females are expected to be regardful. emotional. attractive. quiet and obedient. “supportive assistants and speedy to demo their feelings” ( Macionis and Gerber. 2011:300 ) . These traditional stereotypes have been challenged and confronted by many adult females and women’s rightists. and in this paper we are traveling to look specifically in athleticss and physical activities. My thesis statement will be that gender inequality has been diminishing over the last 100 old ages. Womans were easy get downing to take part in all athleticss which were considered to be masculine. and were merely available for work forces to bask.
One of the first factors which could be linked to the emancipation of adult females in athletics in late 1800 – early 1900s is the safety bike. It non merely caused a revolution in women’s manners: women’s athletic wear was eventually being designed to suit more vigorous activity. but “was besides a “vehicle” through which adult females broke with traditions and asserted their independence” ( Hall and Richardson. 1982: 32-33 ) . Slowly more organisations. athleticss nines and tourneies were opening up for adult females. In the early 1900s. adult females started to take part in most signifiers of athletics. but were still prohibited from activities there organic structure contact was possible.
Time period after the World War I and throughout the 1920s was truly exciting for sportsmans in Canada and their fans. “This frequently called the “golden age” of women’s athleticss. it was clip when popular squad athleticss like hoops. ice hockey. and softball became sufficiently organized to keep provincial and Dominion titles ; when the best jocks. particularly in path in field. began to finish internationally and finally at the Olympic Games ; and when adult females leaders and decision makers took control of women’s athleticss. claiming they knew what was the best for misss and adult females. although the advice of the adult male was still needed” ( Hall. 2002: 42 ) . In the 1928 Canadian adult females have joined Olympics in Amsterdam for the first clip for the path and field competition.
In the mid 1930s “depression tightened its clasp on Canada and the were marks that the Golden Age was over. Reactionary attitudes towards athletic competition for females was taking clasp ; commercialized professional athletics for work forces was on the rise. significance that men’s athleticss were given precedence of entree to public installations. Spectators were drawn off from the women’s games to the entirely male professional athleticss like ice hockey. football. baseball ; it became progressively hard to happen patrons for women’s amateur sport” ( Hall and Richardson. 1982: 36 ) .
World War II took its toll on both men’s and women’s athleticss. Although many of conferences continued to be. cipher took sports earnestly. Olympic Games did non get down once more till 1948. ” Post war conservativism has been described by Betty Friedan: adult females should want “no great fate than to glory in their ain femininity” . Careers or committednesss outside of their place were unneeded for their personal fulfilment and unwanted for the satisfactory public presentation of the homemaker role” ( Lenskyj. 1986: 83 )
For the continuance of war adult females were busying men’s occupations and were laid off every bit shortly as work forces returned place to restart the rightful topographic point. It was still alright for adult females to take part in “beauty producing” athleticss like figure skating. synchronized swimming. or gymnastic exercises and every bit long as they looked reasonably and feminine on the tennis. badminton tribunals. golf classs. and ski hills. they were non criticized. But adult females jocks which were “sweating on the hoops tribunals. softball pitches. ice hockey rinks. and the clinker paths were fishy. their muliebrity continually questioned” ( Hall. 2002: 109 ) .
Engagement in school. university and community featuring plans nevertheless. was barely likely to present a menace to muliebrity. Basketball continued for the most portion to be played by girl’s regulations. Softball. an already simplified version of baseball. was in some instances was modified farther for misss and adult females.
In the 1960s non merely women’s muliebrity was being inquiries but besides their gender. In the 1966 the first official “sex tests” were introduced. with three gynaecologists ocular scrutiny to corroborate that athletes venereal sex was. in fact female. “The debut of sex trials coincided with important progresss for adult females in footings of their engagement at the Olympic Games. with figure of them increasing dramatically throughout the sixtiess and 1970s. ” For illustration at the summer Olympics. the 800 metre running was reintroduced in the sixtiess. Women’s volleyball. the first squad event for adult females was introduced in1964. along with pentathlon and 400 metre single potpourri. swimming event.
The 1968 Olympics in Mexico City six more swimming events were introduced and in the 1972 at Munich. the 1500 – metre tally. 4?400 metre path relay. and kayak slalom were introduced. So the figure of adult females on Canada’s Olympic squad has increased from 11. 30 to 22. 6 per cent for the Summer Olympic between 1960 and 1972. and from 21. 4 to 38. 3 per cent for the Winter Olympic Games during the same period. Sexual activity proving at the Olympics originally was called “femininity control” and was seeking to find who was genetically female. because anterior to that where has been a batch of work forces who were seeking to present as adult females. which was merely found out after the fact and besides adult females jocks were going more “masculine” . therefore it had to be proved that they were really females ( Hall. 2002: 153 -159 ) . The sex proving did non halt until the 1998 Olympic Games in Nagano.
By the mid-1970 all across Canada parents started detecting that their girls were non being treated the same manner as their boies when it came to recreational and featuring chances by the late seventiess at that place has been a batch of athleticss related ailments of sex favoritism. The bulk of these instances were affecting immature misss who wished to play on all male athleticss squads. The chief value of these human rights instances was to convey public involvement. concern and “pressure to bear on extinguishing unequal. sex prejudiced athletics and diversion programs” ( Hall. 2002: 163 )
In March 1981 Canadian Association for the Advancement of Women and Sport ( CAAWS ) was established. It started supplying adult females athletes with support and support. And eventually “in 1982 adult females were granted equal protection and equal benefit of the jurisprudence in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms” ( Macionis and Gerber. 2011: 305 ) .
Get downing of the 1990s in the most countries of organisational life including athleticss. has been a elusive displacement from “equality” to “equity” . “Gender equity is the rule and pattern of just and just allotment of resources and chances for both females and males. This eliminates prejudiced patterns that prevent the full engagement of either gender” ( Larkin and Baxter. 1993: 4 )
In the past decennary Canadian adult females are take parting about in all athleticss on competitory degrees. “ In 1998. in Nagano. Japan. women’s hockey was an official Olympic athletics for the first clip. and universe of Canadian women’s hockey changed everlastingly.
The game that originated in Canada had become portion of our corporate individuality. continues to be our most popular athletics and it is now played by adult females – lawfully! ” ( Macionis and Gerber. 2011:320 ) Canadian adult females Hockey squad has won Olympic gold decoration 3 times in a row: 2002 Olympics in Salt Lake City. 2006 Olympics in Turin. and 2010 Olympic Games in Vancouver. Their accomplishments have been perfectly astonishing. They have showed that they force to be reckoned with. They really have done better than Canadian male Olympic squad.
In this 2012 Olympics Games in London. England for the first clip women’s pugilism is traveling to be introduced. And there has been contention of adult females should have on trunkss or skirts. The Amateur International Boxing Association ( AIBA ) requested that female drawerss wear skirts so that would do them more elegant – on the test footing – at the European Championships and for lasting usage in the Olympics. One of Canadian drawerss Elizabeth Plank. told Teddy Katz of CBC wireless athleticss intelligence this January: “Forcing adult females to have on skirts. I think. it’s sexism” . Finally AIBA have decided to hold optional for female jocks to make up one’s mind if they want to have on skirts or trunkss. ( CBC Sports )
As we are able to see gender stereotypes and favoritism in athleticss still exists. Womans still do non acquire as much Media coverage as work forces do. They are still doing smaller wages than their male opposite numbers. Women jocks still have to look beautiful and attractive or they might be stereotyped as being sapphic. dike or masculine. if there are non.
What about the hereafter? It seems that hereafter for Canadian adult females athletes seems bright. There are much more chances that are coming up for adult females in athleticss. for illustration in the Winter Olympics in Sochi in 2014. Russia – the add-on of women’s ski jumping has been approved. Womans are traveling to maintain combat for the equal rights to take part in athleticss events without being criticized to be unfeminine. Daniels ( 2009 ) argues that muliebrity –masculinity divide still prevents adult females jocks to be taken earnestly in their athleticss. And the best would be to encompass the polygendered manner of being. which emphasizes the similarities between adult females and work forces. and that manner female jocks will be given the opportunity to accomplish their full sporting potency and be judged for public presentation. instead than their visual aspect.
1. Baxter. Betty and Larkin. Jackie. 1993. Towards Gender Equity for Women in Sport. ON: CAAWS.
2. CBC Sports. Feb 19. 2002 ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. complete blood count. ca/sports/story/2012/02/19/sp-aiba-boxing-skirts. hypertext markup language )
3. Daniels. Dayna B. 2009. Polygendered and Ponytailed. Toronto: Women’s Press.
4. Hall. Ann M. 2002. The Girl and the Game” . ON: Broadview Press Ltd.
5. Hall. Ann M and Richardson. Dorothy A. 1982. Fair Ball. Ottawa: The Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women.
6. Lenskyj. Helen. 1986. Women. Sport and Sexuality. Toronto: Women’s Press.
7. Macionis. John J and Gerber. Linda. M. 2011. Sociology. 7th erectile dysfunction. Toronto: Pearson Canada Inc.