Sociology is the survey of society. Through the centuries. sociologists have tried to supply an account as to why and how worlds interact with each other on a societal footing. Sociologists have divided sociology into two degrees. microsociology and macrosociology ( Sociology ) . The degree of microsociology surveies is on a smaller position. as macrosociology is the survey of society on a larger analysis. Today. sociology has three major theories: symbolic interactionism. functionalism and struggle.
Symbolic interaction refers to the forms of communicating. reading and accommodation between persons. ” ( Baird and Kaufmann ) worlds will construe different significances in mundane life. from holding a conversation or utilizing their scruples. This theory is based on microsociology because it can be based upon single interaction or a individual individual utilizing symbolism with an object. For illustration. a individual can construe a white dove as a mark of love and peace. while another individual can see it as merely an animate being.
Symbolic interaction is unlike the two other theories. largely because it is on a micro-sociological graduated table and focuses on merely one facet of society. It is believed that this theory’s beginnings are developed from Max Weber who believed a individual acts based of their reading of the universe. However. an American sociologist by the name of George H. Mead introduced the theory to American sociology in the 1920’s ( Sociology ) .
The 2nd theory is functionalism which is defined as. “the philosophy that what makes something a mental province of a peculiar type does non depend on its internal fundamental law. but instead on the manner it functions. or the function it plays. in the system of which it is a portion. ( Functionalism ) ” This theory is based upon different facets of society. working interdependently together. making a sound environment. The best illustration of this theory would affect a household and their authorities working together to make an ideal environment.
As the household works to pay off revenue enhancements to the authorities. the authorities will provide the kids with instruction and a hereafter ( Sociology ) . It has similar basicss as a lifecycle. and if all goes good. will go on in a likewise sound society. Functionalist. Emile Durkheim. believed it could be broken down into two types of societal consensus: mechanical and organic solidarity ( Sociology ) . Mechanical solidarity is a community sharing similar beliefs and work. An illustration of this is an Amish community ( Sociology ) .
Organic solidarity is most common. particularly in America. and it refers to a society working with different thoughts and work. Robert Merton divided functionalism between latent and manifest maps. Manifest map would be “intentional and obvious” . as latent is unwilled and distinct ( Sociology ) . What differentiates this theory from the other two is that this theory does non necessitate societal alteration. This can be debatable because it does non see facets like divorce or bankruptcy. Symbolic interaction and functionalism are likewise in the fact that they both require societal interaction.
Emile Durkheim was a chief renter in making this theory ( Baird and Kaufmann ) . Conflict position is the 3rd theory. “Of the classical laminitiss of societal scientific discipline. struggle theory is most normally associated with Karl Marx ( 1818–1883 ) . Based on a dialectical materialist history of history. Marxism posited that capitalist economy. like old socioeconomic systems. would necessarily bring forth internal tensenesss taking to its ain devastation. ” harmonizing to the book From Plato to Derrida ( Baird and Kaufmann ) .
This position is different from the other two theories because it focuses on the negative facets on society. Unlike functionalism. it focuses on the on society’s alteration and authorising societal construction. Although it is on a macro-level graduated table like functionalism. it chiefly is focused upon the alteration of society. It explains societal phenomena because it demonstrates the facet of a nutrient concatenation. and that it is “survival of the fittest” in society. From societal construction. people will larn where they belong in mundane life. Obviously a individual of hapless position would non be prosecuting with person of a rich position.
The more rich side of the population will derive more benefits from instruction and the concern. supplying the wants and needs to their dependants. making a stronger anchor for their hereafter. I believe. as an American. the theory that best explains our society would be functionalism. Our state entirely depends on an substructure constructed by different subdivisions of society working together to make a greater image. We. as grownups. wage for revenue enhancements that will provide our kids with schooling. so one twenty-four hours they excessively can hold a paying occupation to assist out their kids through school.
The United States of America is choice illustration of functionalism. particularly in the more monolithic metropoliss like Manhattan or Chicago. Cities are dependent on the mutualist maps of society to maintain their society on a sound degree. Another facet of functionalism is the organic solidarity which is most common in America because of the nation’s huge difference in ideals in mundane life which proves to maintain the authorities and society in the center. or ne’er altering. In any instance. if bankruptcy happens to a important company. the impact will be felt through society and the economic system.
This shows the defects upon the theory because it does non dwell with the concern of divorce or bankruptcy. As society has proven. we adapt and an independent function takes over. one time once more supplying stable authorities. The three chief theories of sociology are symbolic interaction. functionalism and struggle. Symbolic interaction is the lone theory that is on a micro-level. concentrating on the cause and reaction between two variables. Functionalism and struggle are on a macro-level and position society on a larger graduated table as a whole.
Conflict theory is the lone theory that reflects a negative input. as symbolic and functionalism focal points on the positive facets of society. I believe. as an American. functionalism is most logical reply for our world of a society. It embraces the manner our authorities has adapted over 100s of old ages. turn outing the best tantrum in my sentiment. I believe it focuses on the economic substructure and capitalist economy of the United States of America. All the theories are likewise in that they each have interaction. even if it on different degrees.