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Chapter two: Research Methodology: 2. 1 Introduction: We conduct a survey to document the perceptions of slum dwellers about causes of poverty and petty corruption and examine how fate affects poverty and other related variables. Since no one has funded this research, it was not possible for us financially to visit all these slum areas. Moreover, almost all of these slum areas have very similar structure. Once you are inside the area you cannot recognize in which slum area you are in. We have selected all areas of five districts of Karachi (Central, East, Mali, South and West) so that we have representation of each district in our sample.

And have visited these areas along with different people who somehow know someone in these areas and interviewed 100 respondents including heads of the households. 2. 2 Study Objective: I) In this study, we will explore and study the perception about poverty and corruption of the poor People living in the slums of Karachi. It) After documenting their perceptions, often mistaken, then we document, what are the problems. That these people face when they use public service. Iii) To find out the relationship between poverty and religious beliefs. V) To suggest polices that government should adopt in order to alleviate poverty. . 3 Hypotheses: I) Low salary is the major cause of corruption. It) The level of difficulty of getting government services is move the area where the Providers have monopoly powers. Service iii) Large family size and Joint family systems are the major causes of poverty in slums area of Karachi. ‘v) Government should change the mind set of poor people and their wrong perceptions about Poverty, large family size and child labor. 2. 4 Justification of study universe: We used primary data, which was be collected by method of sample survey by using questionnaire.

This method provide us primary data of an attitude, felling, beliefs, post and intended behavior, knowledge, personal characteristics and other descriptive items. In this method a set of questions relevant to the information required is designed. The main aim of preparing a questionnaire is the systematic gathering of information from the respondents for the purpose of understanding and/or predicting some aspect of the behavior of the population of interest. We will conduct a survey to document the perceptions of slum dwellers about poverty, petty corruption, child labor, and optimal family size.

Also, empirical analysis on causes issue. Although, ideally it requires time series analysis, we have designed specific questions that will directly address this causality issue. We believe that corruption and poverty are interdependent and must be tackled simultaneously. Than sample survey must be concerned with sample design. The process of sampling design consists that the population in term of sampling units, specify sampling frame by describing the elements of population specify sampling method; determine sample size which must be drawn from the population.

The aim of sampling is to get axiom information about the population from which the sample drawn. 2. 5 Sample size consideration : Ideally the sample size should be more than 100. However, we believe that a sample size of 100 would serve the purpose and enable us to determine slum dwellers perceptions. As mentioned earlier, all these areas have similar structure; long and narrow (three to four feet wide) lanes. Most of the houses are well below the sewerage line. The total area of these houses varies from house to house. A typical house is less than 40 square yards.

Most of the houses have roof less kitchen. We have seen extreme poverty there. The average salary of a household is only RSI. 7000 (less than $100) per month. The average size of the family is 7. We have seen 20 persons living in a small house in Layer area (West district). Gambling, prostitution, drugs and others criminal activities are common in these areas. The average salary of a child is approximately RSI. 3000 or less than $50 (US) per month. It took us six months (month 2010 to March 2012) to complete this survey. 2. Testing validity of Sampling: We also examine the impact of fate on poverty, education level, spouse work, and child labor by employing Wilcox Z test. This test is preferable over paired t test when the data is on the ordinal scale. Moreover, to check the robustness of the results, this study also uses chi-square (V) statistic, a non-parametric test, proposed by Karl Pearson. 2. 7 Sources of data: There are 539 Catchy Baddies in Karachi constituting around 60% of the total city’s population and therefore their residents are the real population of the city.

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