Elizabeth Haiken. “The Devising of the Modern Face: Cosmetic Surgery. ” Social Research. Spring 2000. The American civilization that produced decorative surgery is the progressively ocular. psychologically influenced civilization of the 20th century United States. For those sawboness who perform decorative surgery. the relationship between the physical face and the building of single individuality has ever been and continues to be cardinal. “In our modern 20th century United States. our attitudes toward decorative surgery have been based on a series of premises: that inside every individual who looks different is an American struggling to acquire out ; that inside every homely girl a confident miss is seeking to emerge…” These sawboness. frequently known as “beauty physicians. ” argue that wellbeing is dependent on mental every bit good as physical wellness. therefore warranting their ideas about decorative surgery being medical by helping patients in their development of an individuality. “If decorative surgery is merely about altering external visual aspect. so it is non deep and meaningful but superficial ; it may non be medicine at all. ” At this point in clip. as the figure of Americans who perceive their individualities as being mostly defined by their faces and organic structures increases each twelvemonth. inquiries about the germinating relationship between individuality and decorative surgery are important.
Questions of Writer:
( 1. ) The chief thought of the article is that the modern society in the United States frequently pairs single individuality with exterior visual aspect. Peoples desiring to better their individuality to suit the cast society has created frequently choose decorative surgery as a speedy hole. Contrary to this fast “improvement. ” individuality evolves through a complex societal and cultural procedure of perceptual experience and contemplation. ( 2. ) The author’s perceived “situation” and “strategic response” seems to be that she feels the common tendency in Americans understanding their individuality as outside in beginning is damaging the society. She goes on to discourse the hereafter saying. “Imagine a non excessively distant hereafter. in which babes are made to order. down to the size of their olfactory organs and the length of service of their hairlines. a hereafter in which station birth change is remembered nostalgically as the crude pattern of well-meaning but technologically handicapped medical practicians. ” The author’s intent is to inform society of the misconceptions that have been formed over the history of decorative surgery. and what will go on if the tendency continues. ( 3. ) The writer conceives her function non merely as a bookman. but besides as a prophesier.
Haiken is seen as a bookman when she farther advances the cognition of American society when discoursing the history of decorative surgery and how it evolved. Haiken is besides seen as a prophesier when she predicts the hereafter of the processs of decorative surgery if there is a hereafter in shop at all. ( 4. ) Haiken writes in a straightforward but somewhat slanted tone. She is really straightforward when she addresses the issues that many Americans know but are afraid to admit. She is besides biased because she talks about the issues environing surgeons’ influence on what individuality has become. but she does non turn to the issues of how decorative surgery has positively influenced the self-esteem and assurance that people who undergo the processs gained.
Questions of Trade:
( 5. ) The article’s content is structured chiefly around surgeon’s who perform decorative surgery and their patients who are altering their “identity” entirely based on external visual aspects. The article is physically structured gap with a narrative from the CBS telecasting show The Twilight Zone. Then Haiken reviews the history of decorative surgery and dates it back to BC in India when members of a brick shaper caste tried to retrace olfactory organs cut off as penalty for criminal conversation. Haiken goes on to turn to the current tendencies in decorative surgery. and concludes with what she feels the hereafter holds refering the extinction of the process. ( 6. ) The phrase that best crystallized the article is physical building of individuality. This phrase describes the article as a whole because it’s chief thought is all about how and why Americans feel the demand to retrace their exterior to suit the cast society has created for the “perfect individuality. ” ( 7. ) Haiken gives substance to her accounts by mentioning to several experts on the subjects of decorative surgery. self image. and civilization. First she refers to Richard Stark wrote an article titled “The History of Plastic Surgery in Wartime. ”
Stark discusses issues refering the history of decorative surgery. Second. Haiken uses Warren Susman as a mention. Susman wrote an article called “Personality and the Making of Twentieth Century Culture. ” This referred to the American society and the overall positions of what type of visual aspect is acceptable. A 3rd expert Haiken refers to is David Thomasma who wrote “The Goals of Medicine and Society. ” This article discussed the surgeon’s point of position on the process of many surgery options every bit good as common motivations behind the patients they perform the processs on. Haiken’s article entreaties to our value system because she discusses the sad world of the rough judgmental modern society we live in. In the debut she acknowledges the surgeon’s understanding to his patient. but he will non openly squeal his confusion to her in individual. she he confides in his nurse. She besides addresses the premises that rest on a complex web of beliefs about what is good. desirable. and aesthetically delighting refering criterions of beauty. The bulk of adult females who read the article do non suit into the class of “beautiful” and can sympathise with adult females who chose decorative surgery as an option because they may hold felt the same manner before. This makes us experience “sorry” for the patients. but so as we read on into the article. we understand that these surgical processs are non necessary.
Questions of Explanation:
( 8. ) The connexion that the writer makes among the disparate degrees of experience is partner offing the person with the larger societal environment. In fact she is comparing the person to the popular civilization that the larger societal environment has created. She shows how the person. being the decorative surgery patient. uses the surgical process as a manner to alter their individuality and as a means to suit in with what the societal environment has created as “good. ” ( 9. ) The author’s basic venue of cultural world is located in telecasting. magazines. and all other signifiers of media. The venue of control is based on thoughts. The thoughts are generated from the society as a whole. but media translates it to the general population. ( 10. ) The writer explains the motive behind the actions being taken really good. This whole article discusses that the motive behind altering an individual’s individuality through decorative surgery is the demand to suit in with the what society has determined “good. ” Society’s sense of good frequently starts with the outside.
( 11. ) I feel that the article “The Making of a Modern Face: Cosmetic Surgery” has a negative feel. This negative feel is because it is seeking to explicate that the world of life is non all about what you look like because people’s visual aspects have nil to make with the individual they are. This article is negative toward the decorative surgery process and the sawboness that perform it. This article besides has a negative decision when discoursing the familial use of fetus’ to acquire a aesthetically pleasing kid. ( 12. ) I learned many things from this article. One of the things I found truly interesting was the history behind decorative surgery. I find it astonishing that even before all of the medical phenomenons of our modern society. decorative surgery was practiced as a manner to mend the visual aspect of nose’s once they were broken for perpetrating criminal conversation.
A 2nd fact that I thought was rather interesting was the fact that many people who don’t look “American” or suit into the white character frequently receive surgical processs to do them look more “American. ” This was besides upseting to me because I feel that people should encompass their civilizations and be proud of their lineage. ( 13. ) If I were to better the article. first I would include a grant about the emotional entreaty of decorative surgery. Second. I would hold included a diagram of the popularity of processs. Liposuction. followed by chest augmentation and so face lifts were the three most normally performed surgeries. and a diagram would hold better illustrated the most popular processs.