Euphemism. as a common lingual phenomenon in universe civilization. is widely used in every societal category and field. English euphemism. as one of many euphemisms bing in the universe. has its ain deep beginning. which include both the spiritual beginning and the historical. literary beginning. This thesis will seek to discourse the beginning of English euphemism from every facet of faith. race. political relations. literary. and history. Language reflects life. and is ever closely related to the society. During the communicating. due to some certain limitation of behaviour and morality. people tend to utilize euphemism-used as a sort of lubrication. doing the harsh. indelicate words sound tactful and pleasant. English euphemism plays a really of import function in people’s societal communicating. This paper will besides elaborate the societal communicative map of English euphemism from the three facets: evasive map. polite map. and decorative map.
Having a good apprehension of the beginning and societal map of English euphemism and the English linguistic communication Culture can avoid many struggles in the procedure of societal communicating. [ Key Words ] beginning ; communicative map ; equivocation ; decorative map ; politeness [ Abstract ] euphemisms prevalent in the linguistic communication of the world’s cultural phenomenon. it is widely used in all societal strata and Fieldss. Euphemism as a euphemism in one of the many. has its deep roots produced. in which packages of faith and political relations. but besides literature and history. This paper attempts to religion. race. political relations. literature. history. in a command to research the outgrowth of English Euphemisms beginning.
Language reflects life. and ever closely linked with societal. conversation in the linguistic communication. due to a certain codification of behavior and Ethical motives restraints. people frequently use the euphemism —- the ‘lubricant’ . doing rough. non – polite euphemism becomes so enjoyable. It is in people’s societal communicating played an of import function. This map of its tabu. courtesy maps and capablenesss in three countries to cover up the English linguistic communication Euphemism illustrates the societal communicative maps. Euphemism by to the full understanding the beginnings of English and its societal communicative map. and farther understand the English linguistic communication and civilization. in order to avoid societal communicating in the assorted struggles. [ Keywords: ] beginning ; communicative map ; taboo ; niceness ; screen
Euphemism is a cultural phenomenon every bit good as a lingual construct. Every linguistic communication has its ain euphemism. so does English. It is profoundly rooted in societal life and has a great influence on societal communicating. As an indispensable and natural part of English linguistic communication. English euphemism has attracted people’s attending for a long clip. Since Euphemism was coined. it has played a really of import function in people’s communicating. The communicating without euphemism is impossible. Euphemism is used like lubrication. which makes the communicating travel on swimmingly. This thesis will hold an overview of the beginning of English euphemism. and province its societal communicative map.
English euphemism as a lingual construct. it has close relationships with the western civilization. and it genuinely reflects the life and values of English people and their history. Euphemism is a peculiarly good medium for entree to the force of linguistic communication that has provided an effectual attack to understanding the human head. The survey of English euphemism can assist us understand the western Culture and advance the international Development because euphemism is widely used in international dialogues. So there is a great demand for us to analyze English euphemism. including: its beginning. its societal map. etc.
2. The definitions of English euphemism
Euphemism is a cosmopolitan lingual phenomenon. About in every linguistic communication. there are some disgustful words. which make people experience embarrassed. In the procedure of communicating. the unsuitable or excessively direct words will do people experience uncomfortable. even angry. Then there is a great demand for us to utilize a tactful manner to show emotion. exchange thoughts. That is to state. to utilize a pleasant. mild or indirect words or phrases take the topographic point of tabooed words. It is known that euphemism is a signifier of linguistic communication deliberately created in societal relation to accomplish ideal communicating. Without them any linguistic communication would look to be coarse and rude. nothingness of niceness and color to some extent. As a common communicating in the procedure of people utilizing linguistic communication. euphemism is an of import manner for people to organize the societal relationships.
Like a sort of lubrication. euphemism enables people to show what can non be uttered straight and ensures communicating to be carried swimmingly. It is a linguistic communication Strategy in civilised society for avoiding tabu. It is impossible if the communicating is without euphemism. The word ‘euphemism’ was derived from the Grecian word ‘euphemismos’ . which means ‘fair speech’ . The prefix ‘eu’ means ‘good. sound well’ and ‘pheme’ agencies ‘saying’ or ‘speech’ . And therefore the actual significance of ‘euphemism’ is ‘to speak with good words or in a pleasant manner’ . That is to state. euphemism is used as an option to unpleasant look. in order to avoid possible lose of face. either one’s ain face or through traveling discourtesy. that of the audience. or some of 3rd of party.
This unpleasant look may be tabooed. awful. or for some other grounds that talkers can’t or intend non to utilize some certain look straight on some juncture. ‘In Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language is’ the permutation of a mild. indirect. or obscure look for one idea substituted ‘ . Rawson Blunt. a British author. defined euphemism as’ a good favourable reading of a bad word. ” [ 1 ] ‘Encyclopedia Britannica ( 1994 ) besides defines euphemism as’ a figure of address in which something of an unpleasant. straitening or off-color nature is described in less violative terms” [ 2 ] From the above mentioned. we could clearly see that euphemism is characterized by turning away linguistic communication and evasive look. The talkers use words or looks as a protective shield against the choler or disapproval of natural or supernatural things. It is one signifier of linguistic communication and a lingual phenomenon
3. The beginnings of English euphemism
3. 1 The spiritual beginning of English euphemism
The earliest English euphemisms come from ‘taboo’ . The word ‘taboo’ comes from Togan. a sort of Polynesian. It indicates evasive linguistic communication or action. [ 3 ] The outgrowth of English euphemism is to run into the demand of avoiding tabu. In crude society. people can’t explicate such things as complaint and some supernatural phenomena. ‘People have confusion between the name of the things and things themselves. The name is viewed as an extension of things. Merely as the parlance says’ Speak of Satan and he appears ‘ . Naturally the words or phrases related to such things become taboos. ’ [ 4 ] In the ancient times. people had blind religion in shades and Gods they respected. They whispered and even feared them so they did non make bold to turn to their names straight. They think it profane to call God.
Therefore the names of Gods become the earliest tabu. To talk name of Gods was to arouse the deity whose power so had to be confronted. Such unsafe patterns were reserved for priests skilled in negociating with the supernatural. So the usual manner to avoid is to use euphemisms. Therefore. for the spiritual demand. a batch of euphemisms about faith emerged. For illustration. in order non to profane God. people in English-speaking state ever use some other name for God alternatively of naming straight. such as ‘Adonai. the Almighty. Caesar’s Cruth. the Creater. Dod. Gad. Land. Lawks. Lawd. ’ [ 5 ]
The opposite side of God is devil. which is more awful for people. When people refer to them. they tend to utilize such euphemisms to replace: D. the Big D. the Evil 1. the Black 1. the Goodman. Jesse. Old male child. Our male parent. Lord of Godheads. King of male monarchs. the Light of the universe. etc. [ 6 ] From the above mentioned. we can happen that faith brings many inoffensive footings in the spiritual affair. particularly the naming and addressing of God to the linguistic communication. 3. 2 The racial and national beginnings of English euphemism
It is known to all. the phenomenon of racial favoritism is profoundly rooted in America in which ‘equal opportunity’ is flattered by American white people as an equal right enjoyed by everyone. Due to the force per unit area of societal public sentiment. although some Whites discriminate the black from their bosom. they will non expose this sort of bias in public. Meanwhile. few people dare to mortify and oppress inkinesss publically for no ground at all. In other words. the manner of favoritism becomes tactful. There are many euphemisms emerging for this ground. In the 1930s. ‘nigger’ is still a impersonal noun in England. and has no significance of mortifying inkinesss. But since this word has the obvious significance of know aparting the inkinesss. most of people in England and Americans use some other inoffensive words. such as ‘colored black’ alternatively.
When speaking about some other races. it does non frequently use the direct words that are related to colour. Peoples frequently use some inoffensive look. such as the geographic name. 3. 3 Historical. literary and Political beginnings of English euphemism From the clip the Normans conquered England in 1066. English has emerged many euphemisms. At that clip. the chief ground to utilize euphemism is that the linguistic communication used by the conquered is frequently disparaged. and is thought as gross linguistic communication. The upper category certainly doesn ‘t want to take down their position to utilize such words. In order to avoid utilizing such gross words. they tend to use’ the elegant words’ . which originated from Latin. And these words were assorted into English bit by bit. There are besides many euphemisms in literary plants.
For illustration. in Hamlet. Shakespeare use the look ‘The undiscovered state from whose bourn no traveller returns’ ( there has ne’er been a enigma travellers to come back off the state ) to show his great understanding for Hamlet. [ 7 ] The celebrated American author Mark Twain usage ‘release’ to show ‘die’ in his work The Adventure of Tom Sawyer. Besides. political relations is a fertile country for the visual aspect and growing of English euphemism. which is decorative in look but delusory in nature. Euphemisms of this sort are ever consciously and intentionally. The decorative euphemism can be easy found in American English. Government’s treatment of the Vietnam War was saturated with euphemisms.
Villages burned and dwellers imprisoned were ‘Pacifications’ ; the war itself was non a war but a ‘conflict’ . the ‘bombing’ becomes ‘logistical strike’ or ‘close air support’ . and ‘killing’ becomes ‘wasting the enemy’ . These euphemisms are used to lead on and to conceal the dirty concern of war. [ 8 ] The usage of such Political euphemisms helps authorities to fancify the action and prevent people from taking any anti-government action. So in order to fulfill the Political demands. many euphemisms come to be.
4. The societal communicative map of English euphemism
From the position of linguistic communication communicating. euphemism maps to avoid tabu. to demo niceness and conceal feelings. Thankss to euphemism. it is easy for people to accept the things that are likely to do others experience embarrassed or unhappy. It is people’s general character to show their thoughts as mildly and tactfully as possible. Euphemism helps people to make this end. From the minute euphemism came into being. it has played a really of import function in our day-to-day communicating. and assist set up a good relationship between human existences and even beef up the societal stableness. Euphemism are motivated by the desire non to be violative.
Peoples use them to demo their niceness. to avoid being violative and to run into the psychological and good demands of both talkers and listeners in communicating. But sometimes they are used to hide or cover something. Consequently. euphemism serves three basic communicative maps: evasive map. polite map and decorative map.
4. 1 The evasive map of English euphemism
The evasive map of euphemism is to hedge utilizing tabus. enabling the talker to speak about tabooed things freely. These tabooed things are believed to be unsafe to certain persons. or to the society as a whole. or to be gross outing and unpleasant. and cause fright. Such tabooed things include: disease. disablements. decease. sex. organic structure elimination and organic structure riddance procedure. etc. Peoples can utilize euphemisms to speak about what can non be talked straight.
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4. 1. 1 In footings of disease and disablements
Peoples yearn for wellness. and fright for specific disease and every kind of disablement. So people ever use tactful manner to show them. For illustration. sexual or genital disease such as pox. gonorrhea. ADIS. etc. Are called ‘social disease’ . ‘communicative disease’ . etc. in English. Besides. disablements are really sensitive country in every civilization. In English. ‘the handicapped. the disabled. the inconvenienced. the invalid. auditory impaired. hard of hearing. talk with one’s fingers’ . etc. are put into service. [ 9 ] So euphemism plays a really of import map in our societal communicating. Without it. we sometimes can non go on our talk.
4. 1. 2 In footings of decease
Death is an inevitable phase at the terminal of life’s journey. It is common Experience of human existences. Yet it has been the beginning of fear-fear of the loss of loved 1s ; fright of the terminal of one’s life ; fright of the existent procedure of deceasing. Therefore. all these frights. concerns. and unpleasant feelings combined lead to verbal tabu of decease. Euphemisms refering decease are highly rich. In English. there are more than 70 euphemisms for ‘death’ . including ‘to be gone. to be gone to a better universe. to be with God. to breath one’s last. to shut one’s twenty-four hours. to go from the universe forever. to go to God. to fall asleep. fall in the great bulk. go through off. etc. [ 10 ] No affair why this word is used in a certain linguistic communication. people ever tend to utilize less rough words
4. 1. 3 In footings of sex. organic structure elimination and organic structure riddance procedure Words relating to sex. reproduction and elimination are extremely restricted to advert because they may arouse gross outing responses of people. Verbal tabu on them is likely motivated by the intuitive catastrophe. shame. People all have certain feelings of which they are so ashamed that they don ‘t like to acknowledge even to themselves. In people’s day-to-day life or in some formal juncture. if the talk or treatment refers to something approximately drainage. people will seek to avoid utilizing coarse linguistic communication. They tend to utilize some implied or impersonal words to do conversation comfy. For ordinary people. the safest manner to avoid adverting these things that they have to advert in many fortunes is to utilize another expression-euphemism to replace the true name of such a thing.
For illustration. in English there are many elegant looks for ‘going to WC’ . such as: to rinse one’s manus. to pass a penny. to travel and see one’s aunt. to reply the call of nature. because nature calls. etc. [ 11 ] ‘The subject refering being pregnant is huffy because it tends to elicit the association with sexual behaviours. ’ To crush circular bushes’ is really necessary. such as’ with kid ‘ . ’ expecting ‘ . ’ demuring ‘for’ pregnant ‘ . etc. [ 12 ] Talking about sexual intercourse is forbidden. Expressions associating to sex have to a great extent been veiled for the intent of avoiding clumsiness and discourtesy. So people use inoffensive words to speak about it. For illustration. people evade stating ‘hip’ straight which is replaced with ‘buttock’ . ‘bottom’ . ‘one’s thing’ . and ‘secret parts’ donates sex variety meats of both males and females.
4. 1. 4 In footings of old age
English and Chinese have different feelings about ‘old age’ . A Chinese is proud of being old. whereas a westerner will experience annoyed and even insulted at adverting his oldness. In English civilization. people do non depict others as or to be described as’ old ‘because the old. who no longer work. are ignored by society. Therefore. people create’ the 2nd childhood aureate old ages. senior citizen. grey hair. mature aureate age ‘when they refer to’ old age ‘in which it attempts to hide the fact of going old and avoid eliciting old people’s sad feeling of aging. [ 14 ] 4. 2 The polite map of English euphemism.
Politeness is another of import map that euphemisms service in the societal life. Politeness is the symbol of human’s civilisation and one of the of import rules steering people’s activities. As a sort of important societal activity. linguistic communication activity must detect this rule. excessively. When we have to speak something unpleasant. we should take inoffensive manner to show in order non to ache others. Bing polite is a sensible action that anyone who is acute on face-saving will take. The polite map of euphemism is tried to avoid being rough or impolite in the communicating. In other words. euphemisms are to minimise impolite looks and maximise polite looks. For case. when a instructor remarks on a student’s moral behaviors and school work in forepart of the pupil or his or her parent. he or she should describe the fact on one manus. and on the other manus should take into consideration the student’s psychological endurance and the parent’s face.
So the inoffensive manner to show might be ‘The pupil is a spot slow for his or her age’ alternatively of ‘The pupil is stupid ‘ . [ 15 ] The polite map of English euphemism is embodied in every occupational linguistic communication. Occupational favoritism gives people force per unit area and emotional annoyance. Although euphemisms can non deracinate this sort of phenomenon. at least. they can give them some psychological comfort by upgrading of calling name. Therefore. ‘ applied scientist. director. etc. ‘have become more and more stylish. ’
Dustman ‘is changed to’ healthful applied scientist ‘ ; ’ mechanic ‘to’ car applied scientist ‘ . ’ nurseryman ‘to’ landscape designer ‘ . ’ cobbler ‘to’ shoe rebuilder ‘ [ 16 ] In English. there are many adjectives about people’s visual aspect. such as’ good looking. handsome. reasonably. capturing. attractive’ . etc. They are all commendatory words. When speaking about person who is non reasonably. we can non utilize ‘ugly’ or ‘awfully’ . We had better utilize some euphemisms such as ‘plain. ordinary. non peculiarly looking’ . etc. alternatively of them. So euphemism’s polite map can salvage people’s face in their procedure of communicating. It is so of import that we can non pretermit it.
4. 3 The decorative map of English euphemism
Besides the evasive and polite map. euphemism has the decorative map. This sort of euphemism is normally used in the authorities. military. political relations and commercialism. It refers to utilizing good words to fancify things. which are non beautiful in world and do the thing be more persuaded and acceptable. Because euphemism has the nature of vagueness. to some extent. it is delusory. Traditionally talking. euphemism plays a positive function in societal life. Using it. people can avoid some abashed and ungracious juncture. But merely as every coin has two sides. euphemism has no exclusion. Using it appropriately can organize societal relationships. but mistreating it will misdirect the populace. will cover up the kernel of things. For illustration. in modern Western society. the hapless is called as’ the needy ‘ . later it was changed to’ the culturally deprived ‘ . so to’ the underprivileged ‘ . at last to’ the disadvantaged ‘ . So it will confound people that this state is so rich that there is no hapless people at all. First. the authorities and the military frequently use them to mask the world from truth.
They describe ‘Economic crisis’ as ‘recession’ or ‘depression’ ; ‘attack’ as ‘active defense’ . [ 17 ] At the beginning of twentieth century. the relationship between labour and capital become strained. and the agitation of striking became a serious societal job. In order to conceal the fact. politicians call the labored labor-capital relationship as ‘industrial climate’ . striking as ‘industrial action’ . If the dialogue between labour and capital is successful. it will be claimed as ‘productive’ . on the contrary. it is ‘counter-productive’ . [ 18 ] Second. this sort of euphemism is widely used in commercialism. It is frequently used to play fast ones and to lead on the clients. The commercial exaggerates the product’s map and quality. In the same manner. the English euphemism is besides used to do clients experience pleased. For illustration. in order to run into the passengers’ sense of self-respect. some Airlines call First Class Deluxe Class or Premium Class ; Second Class First Class ; and Third Class become Business Class. Economic Class. or Tourist Class.
Making like these. it seems that all passengers’ place are promoted. Their intent is to pull more riders and derive more net incomes by utilizing euphemisms in the communicating. meanwhile. the clients feel more nice. and it helps clients salvage face. In short. euphemism of this sort may do an thought more toothsome. but they inflate linguistic communication. cut down preciseness and frequently tamper with truth. Some people condemn euphemism as demoralizing because of its lip service. which other see them utile in the facet of organizing societal relationships. However. the fact remains that euphemisms are really much a portion of the linguistic communication. and what’s more of import for us is non to debate their virtues or demerits. but instead to be able to recognize that English euphemism can function for the particular societal activities under certain circumstance.
English euphemism as an indispensable portion of English linguistic communication. is observed everyplace and widely used in people’s day-to-day communicating. On the issue of the beginning and societal communicative map of English euphemism. this thesis has a probationary geographic expedition. But this sort of geographic expedition is in a province of Development because euphemism is developed all the clip. Euphemism roots in every facet of societal life. and is developed with the promotion of society. English euphemism is a mirror of Western Culture in the signifier of English linguistic communication. From the minute it was born. it has distinguishable civilization colour. Euphemism doubtless reflects the interior relationship among the cultural tradition. societal values and the signifier of linguistic communication. In speech interaction. sometimes. out of niceness or tact. one uses a pleasant. less direct word alternatively of something unpleasant. Using euphemism is speaker’s active matter-of-fact Strategy in a certain clip and a certain state of affairs.
English euphemism promotes the Development of English linguistic communication. and enriches the vocabularies of English linguistic communication. giving people a feeling of warm and fresh. In the twenty-first century. with the development of scientific discipline and engineering. many societal jobs rise. excessively. Peoples crave for the gentle. warm and easy understood words. Euphemism emerges endlessly merely right for run intoing this psychological demand. As a common communicating medium and a rhetoric method. English euphemism will be used wider and wider.
Some bookmans hold the sentiment that it is unreasonable to utilize euphemism because they have the nature of fraudulence. particularly in political relations and authorities. But we can non deny the fact that euphemism is really helpful in the procedure of human communicating. Twenty-first century is a period when people of different civilization have even more touches with each other. So it is critical for us to hold a good apprehension of English euphemism. It is impossible if the diplomatic dialogue is without euphemism. Using euphemism is a sort of linguistic communication accomplishment that each of us should get the hang.
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