A verse form by a immature miss named Yesmine from Norway. “you are really of import. you are the lady of the future—” ( UNDP. 2001 ) tries to do consciousness among those people who ever neglect the abilities and potencies of miss kid and go against their basic rights as a human being. as a kid and as a hereafter of a state. Children all over the universe are non acquiring their legal rights and misss kid are in the most vulnerable site. In Bangladesh there are about 58 million kids and adolescents up to the age of 18 old ages. It is more than 45 per centum of country’s full population and more than half of them are misss. ( U. S. Department of State. March. 2006 ) In Bangladesh. much advancement has been made to protect and advance adolescent misss and misss children’s rights in recent times. Now a twenty-four hours the authorities establishing many Torahs and installations sing girl’s right. But still now most of misss are found in uninterrupted victimization of force. want of basic human demands and rights.
Bangladesh and girl child right:
“CONNECTING GIRLS. INSPIRING FUTURES” is the subject of resulting International Women’s Day. 8th March. 2012. So the consciousness for misss child right is acquiring more important to the authorities and people of our state. For the societal norms and values misss are more vulnerable for all kinds of favoritism than male childs in our society. even few old ages ago the state of affairs was much hard for misss. people could barely believe of misss right individually. but the universe is refering about the rights of misss kid. Bangladesh authorities has besides taken many stairss to continue girl kid right. As a consequence Bangladesh was one of the first states to subscribe the CRC ( convention on the right of kids ) on January 26. 1990 and it completed the accession of CRC on August 3. 1990. September 2. 1991 was a historical twenty-four hours for Bangladesh because CRC was ratified by Bangladesh parliament with two 3rd bulks. Bangladesh has accepted all of the commissariats of the Convention. Government has declared the 2001-2010 as Child Rights Decade to raise consciousness about child rights among the people. Shishu Academy was formed and the Women Ministry was turned into Women and Children Affairs Ministry in 1994.
There are about 10 authorities ministries concerned with the public assistance and the rights of kids including the Ministries of Women and Children Affairs. Health and Family Welfare. and Education. The Ministry of Women and Children Affairs ( MoWCA ) is a chief mechanism established in 1994 in organizing and supervising the execution of the CRC. MoWCA is besides responsible for monitoring of a National Plan of Action ( NPA ) for miss Child. The aim of NPA is to develop the state of affairs of girl kid. working in chiefly six sectors: basic instruction ; wellness and nutrition ; H2O and environmental sanitation ; kids in demand of particular protection ; societal integrating. engagement and cultural personal businesss ; and information and communicating. ( BANBEIS. November 2oo2 )
The Suppression of Violence against Women and Children Act ( 2000. amended 2003 ) was passed to replace the 1995 Control of Oppression of Women and Children Act. The new act lays down terrible punishments for assorted sorts of violent discourtesies against kids and adult females including colza. sexual torment. acerb throwing. dowry force. snatch and detainment for ransom.
The Ministry of Women and Children Affairs. as the lead Ministry of the Government. formulated 3rd National Plan of Action for Children ( 2004 -2009 ) to guarantee fulfilment of the Government committednesss for the overall development of the kids in conformity with the commissariats of Bangladesh Constitution. CRC. CEDAW. SAARC Conventions and the National Children Policy.
In 2011 “ jatio shushi niti 2011” passed by the adult females and kids personal businesss. where the right of misss kids are preserved individually and under 18 old ages all male childs and misss are categorized as kids. In our fundamental law the of rights of misss are ensured in many articles. These conferences and their aims were the inspirations for the authorities for the Millennium Declaration in 2000. and the acceptance of the MDG s.
Our authorities is seeking for the better hereafter of the misss kid in our state. including the per centum of Child matrimony. trafficking. sexual maltreatment. colza. acid throwing and other signifiers of development. every bit good as kid labour and kid harlotry which are still high in our state. As we know right has four rules. these are:
So when our authorities is implementing any jurisprudence for girl’s right it should be severally exercising all over the state. if non so no more demoing Torahs will do any consequence. So execution is necessary to protect the right instead than to merely do the Torahs which are go oning most in our state. If we want to mensurate the success of our authorities in implementing the misss kid right. we have to turn up the major sites where the miss kid of our state are more vulnerable for their gender and sex. Some of these issues are discoursing below: Education:
The proportion of misss go toing primary and secondary school in Bangladesh has risen dramatically in recent old ages. This tendency has eliminated the prejudice against misss in attending. registration. keeping. and completion in primary schools. The information now show that misss are in front of male childs in all of these indexs at the primary degree. At the secondary degree. misss outnumber male childs throughout the rhythm ( Grades 6-10 ) . and the secondary school cyberspace attending ratio was 38. 8 per centum. with misss holding much higher net secondary attending than male childs ( 41. 4 per cent versus 36. 2 per cent ) but dropout rates are higher for misss after Grade 6. and far fewer misss complete Grade 10 than make male childs ( 16. 7 per cent versus 23. 5 per cent ) . ( National Plan of Action for Children – Bangladesh ( DRAFT – 22 June 2005 ) .
The Female Secondary School Stipend Project ( FSP ) in Bangladesh was established in 1982 to increase the registration of misss in secondary schools. The Bangladesh Association for Community Education ( BACE ) . a national non-governmental organisation ( NGO ) . initiated and implemented this undertaking.
Primary school miss
Government focuses on capablenesss would intend a stronger part of girls’ school registration Target 3 ( A ) Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary instruction. sooner by 2005. and in all degrees of instruction no subsequently than 2015 to the greater Millennium Development Goal ( MDG ) : promote gender equality and empower adult females ( end 3 ) .
Bangladesh has made impressive paces in a comparatively short clip in footings of accomplishing gender para at both primary and secondary degrees. The state has now surpassed mark 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary school of the gender-related MDG 3 ( Promote gender equality and empower adult females ) . Primary school registration has increased for misss 84 % and boys 81 % . The figures for the first decennaries of the twenty-first century are immensely different: in the primary sector. gender para in registration has been achieved. and in 2002. the secondary sector registration of misss exceeded the registration of male childs at 53 % harmonizing to the below tabular array.
Secondary instruction. Rate 6–12. 1970 and 2002 Year| Institution| Total| Student| % of girls| | Government| Non-government| | Boys| Girls| |
1970| 180| 6008| 6188| 1266| 266| 17. 4|
2002| 327| 17794| 18121| 3967| 4531| 53. 3|
Beginning: BANBEIS. November 2oo2
A figure of policy intercessions are credited for this dramatic alteration. including the Food for Education Programme sponsored by World Food Programme. the rise in non-formal instruction pushed by NGOs. and the addition in formal sector employment chances for adult females and misss that require secondary instruction. particularly the garment sector. In add-on. one of the most commissioned drivers of this alteration is the Female Secondary School Stipend Project ( FSP ) . Launched nationally in 1994 and funded by the World Bank. Asian Development Bank. and the authoritiess of Norway and Bangladesh. the undertaking pays tuition-fees and provides monthly stipends for single rural misss up to category 10 who attend recognized establishments. remain single. maintain at least 75 % attending. and secure at least 45 % Markss in the one-year scrutinies ( a base on balls requires 35 % ) . In 2005. about 2. 3 million misss were enrolled in the programme. ( WB. 2007 )
Maternal and child mortality rate:
Bangladesh has made important advancement in miss kid endurance over the last few decennaries. UNICEF’s 2008 Countdown to 2015 topographic points Bangladesh among merely 16 states in the universe that are on path to accomplish MDG 4 on cut downing child mortality. Between 1990 and 2006. the country’s one-year mean rate of decrease in the under-five mortality rate was 4. 8 ; a rate of 3. 6 will be required to accomplish the MDG in 2015. Harmonizing to the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey ( BDHS ) of 2007. the under-five mortality rate per 1. 000 unrecorded births declined from 88 in 1999-2003 to 65 in 2002-2006. while the infant mortality rate declined from 65 to 52. DHS 2007. miss and male child kid mortality consequence
Beginning: Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey ( BDHS ) . 2007
Here the chart shows the mortality rate. the series 1 for male childs and series 2 for misss. where girls mortality rates are diminishing. There is widespread ignorance about the wellness hazards faced by misss when they marry at a immature age. Young girls confront a much higher likeliness of complications during childbearing. This is one ground why maternal mortality rates are so high in Bangladesh. with about 350 adult females deceasing for every 100. 000 unrecorded births ( World Health Organization 2008 ) .
The BMMS 2010 revealed that the current MMR is 194 deceases per 100. 000 unrecorded births. a 40 per centum diminution from the estimation of 322 per 100. 000 generated by a similar 2001 study. Bangladesh appears to be on path to accomplish the Millennium Development Goal 5 ( MDG 5 ) mark of cut downing the MMR to 143 deceases per 100. 000 unrecorded births by 2015. The rate of diminution was at an norm of 5. 5 per centum per twelvemonth. compared to the mean one-year rate of decrease of the 5. 4 per centum required for accomplishing MDG 5. ( World Health Organization 2009 ) .
At age of 12 misss kid are acquiring married
Despite a lifting tide of outrage and holding a jurisprudence in topographic point. kid matrimony still thrives in Bangladesh. forcing misss into a rhythm of poorness. illiteracy and serious wellness jobs. Harmonizing to a study. ‘Empowering Girls: what the Commonwealth can make to stop early and forced marriage’ . released by Plan International on October 27. 2011 shows that 32 per centum of misss in Bangladesh are married off before they are 15.
Harmonizing to World Bank 80 per centum of the misss in Bangladesh acquire married before they reach the age of 18. which is more lurid ( WB. 2011 ) . Bangladesh is one of the five states with the highest rates of child matrimony. the per centum is 66 % . which is truly really dismaying. ( WB. 2010 )
Harmonizing to the Child Marriage Restraint Act 1929. amended through Child Marriage Restraint ( Amendment ) Regulation 1984. ‘Whoever. being a male below twenty-one old ages of age. or being a female below 18 old ages of age. contracts a kid matrimony shall be punishable with simple imprisonment which may widen to one month. or with all right which may widen to one 1000 Taka. or with both. ’
Early matrimony can take to early childhood/teenage gestation. which is associated with inauspicious wellness results for the both female parent and kid.
Dowry-related force is peculiarly debatable in Bangladesh. . In 2001. 173 misss and adult females were killed due to dowry demand with 79 of these victims below the age of 18. ( UN. 2002 )
Girl kid labour
Bangladeshi society is widely accepting of child labour. and national statute law on kid labour is seldom implemented. Employers who wish to engage kids hence face few restraints.
National studies indicate that 13 per cent of the country’s kids between the ages of 5 and 14 old ages are working. amounting to about 5 million kid labourers. The rates of child labour are higher among male childs than misss ( 17. 5 per cent versus 8. 1 per cent ) . ( NSLF. 2011 ) National statistics on labour force 0f 2011 showed that. the rewards of misss are 10 times lower than the male childs.
Harmonizing to studies supported by ILO and UNICEF in 2005-2006. Bangladesh has more than 420. 000 child domestic workers. and more than three-fourthss of them are misss of 9-12 hours a twenty-four hours. In the ILO-supported study. 19 per cent of child domestic workers said they were slapped or beaten. and 0. 8 per cent of the misss reported that they experienced sexual maltreatment
Prostitution and trafficking in misss:
Bangladesh is considered a zone where many kids and adult females are trafficked and there is small authorities control over it. Due to their low socio- economic position adult females and kids are peculiarly vulnerable to trafficking and sexual development.
Of an estimated 400. 000 street kids in Bangladesh. among all street kids surveyed. 97. 56 per centum are male childs and 2. 44 per centum are misss. About 10 % misss are forced into harlotry for endurance. Street kids here face a really tough state of affairs. They live like little boats in really unsmooth Waterss. The Fundamental law of Bangladesh forbids anguish under Article 35 ( 5 ) and Section 360. 361 & A ; 363 of the Penal Code enforced to protect the kids but few consequences have been seen.
Official estimations suggest that over 13 000 kids were trafficked out of the state in the last five old ages ( WB. 2007 ) . Equally many as 20. 000 kids are exploited in street harlotry. ( Trafficing in Women and Children: The Cases of Bangladesh. UBINIG. 2002 ) The mean age of misss supplied to the whorehouses has decreased from 14 and 16 old ages to 10 and 14 old ages. A miss between 10 and 12 old ages fetches the highest monetary value. There is the myth that a adult male can free himself of sexually transmitted diseases if he sleeps with a virgin hence the fright of HIV/AIDS has increased the demand for virgins and kids. So twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours the state of affairs is truly going dismaying for miss kid. through there are Torahs but the authorities readings and enforcement of these Torahs are lacked most of the times.
Is the success of our authorities refering miss kid right is existent or rhetorical? :
After analysing all the major sectors that needed to be focus when we talk about miss kid right in our state. our authorities is executing some noteworthy functions sing issues like instruction. mortality rate. kid nutrition at some extent. the sex ratio ( 100 female & A ; 103 male ) is besides positive. female infanticides killing is non found in a broad scope. Birth enrollment is critical for children’s rights. since 2006. the proportion of the population with birth enrollment has increased from 7 % to 52 % but other sectors like child matrimony. child labour. trafficking and harlotry are needed more attending.
There are some other issues lifting now a yearss for girl kid. one of them is eve badgering. It late has become the firing issue for the state owing to its inauspicious effects on adult females. particularly to the adolescent misss. But the Women and Children Repression Act. 2000 which has amended in 2003 saying that no 1 would be charged of sexual maltreatment until and unless it is physical and this jurisprudence failed to protect accurately the misss from eve-teasing. Bangladesh authorities besides didn’t focal point on the right of autochthonal misss. If we focus on the success sight of the authorities so we must admit that the state of affairs has been changed and the alterations are outstanding what 15 old ages was back in our state for girl kid. In our state contest the jobs that the miss kid faces are inter-connected somehow. If we educate our misss. do them witting about the consequence of early matrimony so it’ll diminish the kid matrimony. if the misss aren’t acquiring matrimony before the age 18 so it’ll shrink mortality rate and misss will wake up about their right and other force will surely pare down. A flow chart is given below:
Child mortality and wellness
Girl kid right
Street misss kid
Execution of bing jurisprudence and raising consciousness among people Prostitution
Trafficing in misss
Eve tease and others
Bangladesh has ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child ( September 2. 1990 ) and its two Optional Protocols on the engagement of kids in armed struggle and on the sale of kids. kid harlotry and kid erotica ( February 12. 2002 and January 18. 2002 severally ) . MDG. Bangladesh Constitution. CEDAW. SAARC Conventions and the National Children Policy undertaking. jatio shushi niti 2011 have ensured the miss kid right but the proper execution of Torahs is required.
For a underdeveloped state like us the advancement our authorities has made is non negligible but if we talk about the safe guard of our miss kid so much more betterment is required.
Childs are the greatest plus of our state. For the underdeveloped states like Bangladesh the job in miss kid right is sever. Though there are many Torahs to protect misss right but in practical the enforcement can barely be seen in all issue of girl kid right. If we look at the developing states good political construction. easy entree to basic demands. Torahs are in topographic point to protect girl kid. there are ordinance for the citizens to follow every bit good as equal right of kids irrespective of gender. and these are lacked in our state. Bangladesh is full of natural resources. but it is non developing because most of the clip we forget the celebrated quotation mark of Walt Disney that “Our greatest natural resource is the heads of our kids. ” ( Disney. 1943 ) .
We know Bangladesh is one the most density state in the universe so it is non possible for authorities entirely to guarantee the development for kids. specially misss. if our state could able to protect the right of girl kid more better so now. so we could be a function theoretical account for remainder of the universe. Everybody. including parents. society as a whole should come forward for the public assistance of the miss kid. It’s clip we need to alter the mentality of society about girl’s right and enforced jurisprudence in a fecund process that will guarantee the right of girl kid every bit good as the success of our authorities refering miss kid right. The most of import thing we have to maintain in head that Government entirely can’t make stop misss abuse of right until unless we like normal citizen of the state doesn’t show concern or can’t make moralss towards our future coevals but non to number as miss or male child.
* Naila. K. 1985. “Do adult females gain from higher birthrate? ” Delhi. Oxford University Press.
* Tinker. Irene ( ed. ) . 1990. Persistent Inequalities: Womans and World Development. New York. Oxford University Press.
* UNICEF. 2002. United Nations Children’s Fund. The State of the World’s Children 2003. . New York.
* Heissler. Karin. 2001. Background paper on Best Practices and Priorities to Combat Sexual Exploitation and Abuse of Children in Bangladesh. Dhaka. Bangladesh: CSI.
* UNDP. 2003. Human Development Report. Delhi. Oxford University Press.
* ILO. 2002. Girl kid in the informal labor: A Statistical Picture. from South Asis. Geneva. International Labour Office.
* Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics ( BBS ) . 1997-98. Report on the Bangladesh felame and male sex ratio. Dhaka. Government of Bangladesh.
* GOB. The Fifth Five Year Plan 1997-2002. p. 435.
* United Nations. 2007 “Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children. ” Fact Sheet No. 23. Viewed 3rd June. Via hypertext transfer protocol: //www. unhchr. ch/html/menu6/2/fs23. htm
* United Nations. 1989?Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of kids. kid harlotry and kid pornography” viewed 3rd June via hypertext transfer protocol: //www. unhchr. ch/html/menu2/6/crc/treaties/opsc. htm