Interstate struggles are an built-in portion of the twenty-first century. The old century was dominated by two universe wars which were highly violent and the reverberations of which the universe is confronting even today. It becomes indispensable to the survey the different kineticss of interstate struggles in order to hasten the procedures of struggle direction and declaration. There are different histrions in a struggle environment and mass media is an of import 1 among them. It is through mass media that struggles are communicated to citizens. Mass media influences the citizen’s feeling and image of the other i. e. the enemy in inquiry. Proliferation of mass media engineering has resulted into mediates struggles. Conflict is continuously hammered upon the audience by assorted signifiers of media and therefore the demand to critically analyze the assorted facets of media’s function in struggle. This survey deals with the most important struggle in South Asia i. e. of India-Pakistan. This struggle has shaped the political and economic state of affairs in the sub-continent.
Mass media’s function in the India-Pakistan struggle has been much debated by bookmans and media n professionals likewise. What has non been explored is the possibility of Peace Journalism as opposed to mainstream War Journalism between the two states. For this really purpose. the research worker has selected a Peace Journalism run named Aman Ki Asha ( Hope for Peace ) . The run was launched on January 1st. 2010 by The Times of India ( India ) and The Jang Group ( Pakistan ) taking media houses of the several states. The run intends to make an enabling environment by easing duologue between the two authoritiess. promoting people-to-people contact. thereby lending to peace between the two states.
The enterprise is the first of its sort by print media in the sub-continent. It seeks to fulfill its quest for peace by treatment on all combative issues between the two states through mediums like seminars. conferences. cultural festivals and all other forums of people to people contact. The run has besides committed itself to positive usage of print media to advance the benefits of peace and give infinite to each others point of position on issues of difference. So far. Aman Ki Asha has organized literary and music fests. editors conferences. trade conferences and strategic seminars to recognize its vision.
Peace Journalism in the context of India and Pakistan assumes much importance because media in both the states have been vehicles to distribute hatred and animus. Dissemination of stereotypic images and conventional messages has been at the head of media activity in India and Pakistan. During the Kargil War ( 1999 ) . media contributed to constructing up of the war craze. Therefore. media has essayed a by and big negative function when it comes to advancing peace between the two neighbours. Looking at the above mentioned statements. Aman Ki Asha offers a different position on what sort of function can be played by the media in the class of India-Pakistan struggle. It is a Peace Journalism venture launched for the first clip in the media history of the two states. Its critical scrutiny can offer penetrations into the workings of the Peace Journalism theoretical account in current and conflicting times. Furthermore. it comes at a clip when there looms a changeless menace about a atomic zed struggle in South Asia. Hence. the run has been chosen for the survey.
Use war as a metaphor for disease one which needs remedy Incorporate the thought that was is a disease that has afflicted the people of both states Peace has been used as a metaphor for a healthy province of head and organic structure. Healthy and progressive dealingss between India-Pakistan can be established through peace. Intricate connexions between war-disease and peace-health have been affirmed by all the articles under this subject. Collaborating on wellness issues is seen as a possibility of widening duologue among citizens of both states. The articles under this subject depict the runs emphasis on cooperation between soft countries like wellness. IT. instruction. agribusiness. touristry etc. However. there is no specificity on what sort of mechanisms ought to be developed to counter these wellness menaces. There is non much information available in the articles on what sort of wellness menaces do people in Pakistan face and besides no commentary about the demand to steer money being overspent on defence by both states on constructing better wellness substructure.
Therefore. there is no correlativity established between the construct of sensed menace and disregard of peoples issues in both states. People-to-People contact through sector-wise cooperation has been emphasized repeatedly but inquiries about its sustainability and impact have non been addressed at all. The manners in which the three articles have been written is starkly different The base point taken by all the three narratives is pro-peace and pro-cooperation The article dated November 20. 2011 seeks narratives from ordinary people on both sides of the boundary line. It talks about ailing Pakistani kids being operated in India free of cost It shows that the bing spread between the two states can be successfully bridged by its common people. There is no geographic expedition of the aspect of Pakistanis lending to Indian medical specialty and health care in any manner but the vice-versa has been reported.
( 1 ) BUSINESS/ECONOMY:
Business/trade has been identified as another of import country of cooperation by the run. This is apparent from the figure of articles devoted to the subject. The articles on concern identify visa limitations prevalent between the two states as the major hurdle for promotion of economic ties. They contain of import statements from policy-makers taging a displacement in the attitudes of authoritiess on both sides when it comes to trading. Eg: Statement from Pakistani Commerce Minister foremost to see India in 35 old ages. Trading ties with India for Pakistan are a topic of national involvement non merely for its authorities and citizens. but besides for its military constitution which speaks volumes about the military being an of import stake-holder in the political system of Pakistan. The militarys interest in the peace procedure may take to an wholly different set of effects which has non been debated at all.
There is besides a passing reference about the agreement of SAFTA ( South Asia Free Trade Agreement ) but no analysis of how its workings have been hampered by the strife between India and Pakistan. Apart from increasing trade ties. the two states as mentioned in the articles can besides assist each other in constructing establishments of commercialism and capacity edifice of people in the field of concern. Enhancing trade attempts is non viewed as being restricted to the moderation of the visa government but has been furthered to action oriented cooperation. A possibility to beef up regional cooperation through SAARC ( South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation ) has been envisioned. This shows the desire for normality non merely in bilateral dealingss but peace for the full South Asiatic part points etc the latter allowing the same to Pakistan in 1996. ( 2 )
Kabul river pact between Afghanistan and Pakistan and how Indias assistance to Afghan developmental undertakings is making misgiving between India and Pakistan. This is in consensus to the Peace Journalism theoretical account developed by Galtung which says that peace news media does non curtail the figure of parties in a struggle to two and besides studies about other parties which may hold an indirect or direct influence on the struggle. The article provides a factual and critical analysis to chase away leery believing on portion of Pakistan.
This is an of import constituent of peace news media because if menaces of struggle are critically analyzed. so they might uncover certain misconceptions and pre-conceived impressions. ( 3 ) This a really good illustration of peace coverage and it stands out among the full batch of articles chiefly because it is analytical in nature as opposed to factual studies. One of the features of peace news media is looking at larger benefits of peace and cooperation. which this article successfully does. It besides prescribes peace options for eg: How India can ease an Afghan-Pak H2O pact to take intuitions about its function.
Culture may non look to be an obvious avenue of cooperation between the two states but it is an of import 1 because civilization has deep influence and impact on people. It is through civilization and different signifiers of mass media that bing stereotypes can be dismantled. India-Pakistan cooperation in the sector of civilization is non an institutionalised 1. It has grown by itself. Over the clip. Pakistani creative persons have been accepted whole-heartedly by the Indian audience and they have besides gained commercially by being a portion of the Indian amusement industry. Their Pakistani individuality has non come in the manner of their achieving success in Bollywood.
They have made a place for themselves in India. says the article. which basically signifies the transcendency from stiff to flexible national individualities in this instance. There is a possibility for greater cooperation in sectors of movie and music by the manner of transverse state productions between India and Pakistan. For eg: An India-Pak movie festival. This is a really important article because the Aman qi Asha run itself has been a locale for assorted cultural exchanges between the two states through which the ability of civilization to convey people together is demonstrated.
( 4 ) Civil Society and Peace Militants:
A figure of civil society organisations and NGOs are working to advance peace and harmoniousness between two states. They include among others South Asiatic Free Media Association ( SAFMA ) . Pakistan. Green circle Organization ( GCO ) . Pakistan. Institute for Secular Studies and Peace ( ISSP ) . Pakistan and Aman Ki Asha ( Hope for Peace ) a joint venture of two day-to-day newspapers of India and Pakistan. ( 5 ) Peace between India and Pakistan has been pig-headedly elusive and yet invitingly inevitable. This huge subcontinent senses the premiums a peace dividend can present to its people yet it recoils from claiming a portion. The natural urge would be to interrupt out of the straitjacket of stated places and embrace an ideal that promises sustained prosperity to the part. yet there is vacillation. There is a corporate palsy of the will. induced by the injury of birth. amplified by false starts. misgiving. periodic eruption of force. intuition. misplaced flag waving and diplomatic doublespeak.
Tragically. chance knocks unheard on doors bolted on the interior. Opportunism. that entreaties to throwback passions. elicits an instant response to every individual knock. It is one of history’s sarcasms that a people who portion so much. garbage to admit their similarities and concentrate so avidly on their differences. We believe it is clip to reconstruct the equilibrium. Public sentiment is far excessively powerful a force to be left in the custodies of narrow vested involvements. The people of today must happen its voice and coerce the swayers to listen. The awaam must compose its ain posters and manner its ain mottos. The leaders must larn to be led and non blindly followed. Incredulity about the given is frequently the generation of religion. This incredulity has been brewing. It can be unleashed to hammer a new societal compact between the people of this part. The media in India and Pakistan speaks straight to the Black Marias and heads and tummies of the people. It can assist in composing a concluding chapter. adding a happy turn to a narrative that seemed headed for calamity. It can make so by determining the discourse and maneuvering it off from resentment and divisiveness.
It has the adulthood to acknowledge the thorns and obstructions to peace and will non take a timid stance towards the more intractable and combative issues – whether associating to Kashmir. H2O differences or the issue of cross-border terrorist act. It can offer solutions and nudge the leading towards a sustained peace procedure. It can make an enabling environment where new thoughts can shoot and bold enterprises can shoot. The media can get down the conversation where a plurality of positions and sentiments are non drowned out by sharp voices. It can cleanse contaminated mentalities and resuscitate the generousness of liquors which is a typical trait of the subcontinent. It can assist chill the temperature and ablactate away the defenders from bastioned frontiers. It can reason the instance for apportioning scarce resources where they are needed the most. We believe that this is an intercession whose clip has come. We recognize that set dorsums will happen but these should non derail the procedure. We will necessitate to make out and tweak the low hanging fruit in the beginning before we aim higher.
Issues of trade and commercialism. of investings. of fiscal substructure. of cultural exchanges. of spiritual and medical touristry. of free motion of thoughts. of visa governments. of featuring ties. of connectivity. of resuscitating bing paths. of market entree. of detached households. of the predicament of captives. will be portion of our initial docket. . They talk to each other about nutrient. about music. about poesy. about movies. about theater and about the drawn-out absences spawned by lost old ages. They portion anxiousnesss. discuss lifting monetary values. seek advice on their children’s instruction. dish the dirt about their in-laws. trade anecdotes and laugh at the idiosyncrasies of politicians. We want to take down the walls so that the conversation continues. We owe our unborn coevalss the right to lift out of the deepnesss of poorness. and squalour. It is abashing to read the statistics corroborating our opposition to positive alteration in the Fieldss of instruction. wellness and poorness relief. All societal indices are stacked against us and will stay so unless we scatter the war clouds that threat our skies.
There are external elements at work in the part that thrive on the animus between the two neighbors. They have a interest in maintaining the part in convulsion. We need to battle them by doing them irrelevant. A rush of good will and flexibleness on the portion of civil society and the media will force these forces back by denying them the natural stuff that manufactures hatred. Our subcontinent needs to follow the footmarks left behind by the great poets. Sufi saints and the bhakts who preached and practiced love and inclusiveness. This is the land of Tagore and Ghalib. of Bulleh Shah and Kabir. of Nanak and Moinuddin Chisti. It is their spirit that will steer us in this journey. The one and half billion people of this part await the morning of an age where peace. equality and repose prevails. This will go on when every bosom beats with Aman qi Asha. What Aman qi Asha has achieved so far:
Aman qi Asha has brought about a sea alteration in perceptual experiences about each other among Indians and Pakistanis. Independent studies in India and Pakistan have shown that as a consequence of the Aman qi Asha run. every positive perceptual experience about Pakistan in India has improved. and every negative perceptual experience has decreased. Some of the more important alterations in perceptual experience include. Before Aman ki Asha was launched merely 4 % Indians knew Pakistan’s point of position on the Kashmir ; after 12 months of runing this increased by 425 % . to 17 % . ( 6 ) 1. The panic perceptual experience of Pakistan decreased from 59 % to 29 % . 2. The hope for sustainable peace “in our lifetime” increased from 13 % to 29 % 3. The desire for peace amongst Indians increased from 62 % to 82 % Indians familiar with and following the Aman qi Asha run had an about 40 % more positive perceptual experience about Pakistan than those non familiar with Aman qi Asha.
By openly and sharply runing forthe declaration of differences. set uping trade and investing dealingss and greater people to people contacts. Aman qi Asha has enabled all other stakeholders. NGOs engaged in peace-building. politicians. the concern community and civil society leaders – to openly recommend standardization of dealingss between Pakistan and India far more strictly than earlier. ( 7 ) Aman qi Asha has brought the concern communities of both states together in their single capacities every bit good as the two largest concern associations of India and Pakistan the Pakistan Business Council and the Confederation of Indian Industries. By strongly recommending economic coaction and doing presentations to the Commerce Ministry of Pakistan. Aman qi Asha has provided drift to Pakistan’s grant of MFN position to India.
By supplying a platform for an unfastened and honest treatment on combative issues and giving voice to the strong desire of the people of both states for peace. Aman qi Asha has given enormous assurance to both authoritiess to negociate with an unfastened head and show flexibleness ( during his visit to Pakistan. the so Indian Foreign MinisterS. M. Krishna publically acknowledged that. “the sea alteration in the dealingss between India and Pakistan during the last two old ages is mostly attributable to the attempts of Aman ki Asha and we now portion the optimism of Aman ki Asha” ) . All mainstream political leaders of Pakistan – Mian Nawaz Sharif. so Prime Minister Yusuf Raza Gillani. Altaf Hussain. Imran Khan. Liaqat Baloch – have strongly endorsed the aims and the positive part of Aman ki Asha. Aman qi Asha has non merely captured the imaginativeness of the people of both states it has drawn broad and vocal support from the international community. ( 8 )
From the above analysis. we can reason that the Aman Ki Asha run has focused on events like meetings of elites. duologues with top degree functionaries. policy shapers. and capable experts to emphasize on sector wise battle between the two states. The run is an enterprise to level stereotypes predominating in both states and a elusive review on the media which relies to a great extent on chauvinistic discourse and demonising the other. It has provided a range for voices of peace to be heard and has ventured the way less treaded. It has tried to set up itself as a theoretical account of peace news media by portraying the good work done by people on both sides of the boundary line. The push of the run comes from the belief that peace can be achieved as a consequence of cooperation enhanced in different sectors. However. the articles of the run do non dig deeper and supply a critical commentary on assorted peace options that can be made available to India and Pakistan. Certainly. peace coverage should be optimistic. but it should besides be balanced with the purpose of steering future policy determinations.
Many first clip enterprises taken up by the run have been discussed in the articles ( eg: meetings of deputations of capable experts. visit of Pakistan Commerce Minister etc ) . The run has been a platform for elites of the two states to run into up and exchange thoughts. The articles have non covered a individual visit of an Indian deputation to Pakistan which may come out as a skewed signifier of 15 cultural exchange. This is non to reason that vice-versa exchanges have ne’er taken topographic point. Merely they have non been reported in the selected sample for survey. The survey is limited in the sense of non being able to analyze the Jang Group of publications for articles about the run that have appeared in the Jang newspaper and its other associates. The inability to analyze the Jang newspaper has been because of the linguistic communication barrier. The articles in the newspaper are in Urdu. However. future surveies can see including The News International. a day-to-day from Pakistan which has partnered Aman Ki Asha with The Times of India.
Surveies including articles from Jang and The News International will be able to supply a more holistic and balanced position of the run. Besides the dearth of intelligence articles speaking about exchanges between common citizens can be attributed to two grounds Since. the run is of a uninterrupted nature it may non be possible to hold each exchange and interaction between representatives of both states as intelligence. Hence. merely some which are considered to be of import and of intelligence value have been presented in the run. Foreign Policy is the sphere of the elite and interaction between elites is perceived to be of much more importance than between ordinary citizens to convey about an effectual alteration in the attitudes of policy shapers.
Despite the blank in the articles analyzed. the run comes highly close to the normative prescriptions developed by Galtung for a Peace Journalism theoretical account. As has been observed in the information analysis subdivision. all the articles conform to the selected considerations in some or the other manner. All considerations may non use at the same clip to a peculiar article. Through analysis. there has been an effort to picture the implicit in niceties of the paperss which may non be rather evident to the reader. The run therefore. serves as a Peace Journalism model the first of its sort in the context of India-Pakistan and assumes non merely greater importance but besides greater duty to run into the challenges that prevarication.
1 Patel. T. ( 2005 ) . News Coverage and Conflict Resolution: Aid or Impediment. Unpublished M. Phil Dissertation. University of Queensland. Australia.
2 hypertext transfer protocol: //amankiasha. com/faqs. asp Accessed on February 23. 2012 3 Chattarji. S. ( 2008 ) . Tracking the Media: Interpretations of Mass Media Discourses in India and Pakistan. Routledge. New Delhi. 4. hypertext transfer protocol: //amankiasha. com/joint_statment. asp
5. Alam. I. ( 2006 ) . Media and Peace in South Asia. Pakistan: Free Media Foundation. 6. Anupama. C. ( 2007 ) . King of Bollywood: Shah Rukh Khan and the Seductive World of Inidan Cinema. New York: Warner Books. 7. Bhaumik. S. N. ( 2006 ) . Politicss of Indian War Films. Pakistan: South Asiatic Policy Analysis Network. 8. Holm. A. N. & A ; Holm. A. N. ( 2008 ) . Bating for Peace. Germany: VDM Publishers. Bibliography:
9. Kukreja. V. & A ; Singh. M. P. ( 2008 ) . Democracy. Development and Discontent in South Asia. New Delhi: Sage Publications India Pvt. Ltd. 10. Rao. S. ( 2010 ) . Shah Rukh Khan: Symbol of Indian Secularism. Pakistan: South Asiatic Journal. ( Journal # 29. named: Film in South Asia ) . 11. Saigol. R. ( 2006 ) . Ideology and Curriculum in India and Pakistan. Pakistan: South Asiatic Free Media Association ( SAFMA ) . 12. Gupta. A. ( 2006 ) . India’s Soft Power. Indian Foreign Affairs Journal. Page # 50-52. New Delhi: