Art, in its simplest definition, is the creation of images or objects. Islamic art has throughout history been mainly abstract and floral, portraying geometric shapes or Arabesque and calligraphic designs because of the strict injunctions against the depiction of living things. Islamic Art as a whole is comprised of visual arts produced 7th century onwards. This term not only describes art made in the service of Islam or by Muslim artists, but also secular art originating from those lands which were ruled by Muslims or where majority of the population was Muslim.
Therefore, Islamic Art oversee many people and lands over a period of 1400 years and with that the medium and type of art differ from place to place, too. The most trivial problem of expression in Islamic art took root in the fact that the center of Islam, Allah, cannot be depicted visually [“All you believe Him to be, He is not. “] Hence, innovative techniques such as geometric patterns were used for this expression. With the expansion of Islamic Empire came the influences of new civilizations and cultures that assimilated into Muslim art and culture paving way for a unique style of Islamic Art.
Thus, over the period of 1400 years Islamic Art has taken many different forms, under different rulers and in different lands. The timeline that this paper will follow is: 1. Dynasty Art Mayday Dynasty Basis Dynasty 2. Medieval Period (9th to 15th century) Spain and the Arab Manager Iran and Central Asia Syria South Asia 3. Empires Ottoman Empire McHugh Empire The Mayday Period is considered the most influential period in Islamic Art. The dynasty was founded by Anyway I bin ABA Subway in 661 A. D. And was overthrown by the Basics in 750 A. D.
Some of the most formidable Islamic Art came out of this point in history. Under Mayday rule hints of Byzantine and Assassin as well as Septic Art influenced Islamic Art. It is for this reason art under Mayday rule is an innovative combination of various decorative styles and motifs all drawn from very different artistic traditions. Mayday architecture is a major product of the dynasty, with many buildings built during this period still extant. During this period, the ‘Arab Plan’ of architecture was utilized, which is the making of a pillared prayer hall.
The nines example of this plan being put into use is the La Mesquite in Spain and The Muhammad Mosque in Damascus. During this time one of the most sacred buildings in the Islamic World, The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, was also built. The building, completed in 618 A. D. , was built in the shape of an octagonal, and features a golden dome. Mayday Art with its striking eclecticism marked an end to this class of Islamic Art for when the Basis Dynasty came into power, a new phase in the and the focal point shifted eastward from Syria to Iraq.
The first three centuries of Basis rule were considered the ‘golden period’ in which Baghdad and Samara served as the cultural and commercial capitals of the world. During this time, a distinctive style developed that spread quite rapidly throughout the Muslim realm and influenced art and architecture. Textile was one of the many diverse arts that flourished during this period. It played a significant role in society and continued on for subsequent periods. Textiles were pervasive in Islamic lands and they served as clothing, household furnishings etc.
The art of pottery too advanced in the 9th entry, with a new technique of luster painting which was first developed in Iraq and subsequently spread to Egypt, Syria, Iran, and Spain. Beginning in the 9th century, Basis sovereignty was challenged in provinces furthest removed from the Iraqi center. The creation of a Shih’s dynasty, that of the north African Fatalism, followed by the Spanish Maydays, gave force to this opposition. The Spanish Maydays established the first Muslim dynasty inside of Spain or ‘Al-Andalusia’.
AH Andalusia was a great cultural centre of the Middle Ages. There were great universities ND an equal vital centre for art. During this period, ivory was used extensively, especially in the manufacturing of boxes, caskets etc. There was also a renowned taste for painted and sculpted woodwork. Furthermore, a great number of textiles such as silk were also exported. In Iran and the North of India, many dynasties, such as the Thirds, Summands and Gainsaid fought for power in the 10th century. Art was one of the vital elements of this competition.
Huge cities were built, most notably Mishap’s and Ghanaian along with the construction of the Great Mosque in Safaris. Growth in the mass art production and sale made it more accessible and commonplace. During this period Funerary architecture was also cultivated. Potters also developed many individual styles such as “kaleidoscopic ornament on a yellow ground; or marbled decorations created by allowing colored glazes to run; or painting with multiple layers of slip under the glaze. ” In the 13th century, Islamic book painting experienced its ‘golden age’, mostly from Iraq and Syria.
There was influence from the Byzantine visual vocabulary. The Indian subcontinent, when came autonomous in the 1206, moved away from Persian art and tradition and gave birth to its own unique approach to art and architecture in particular interacting with Hindu art. This period of the sultanates ended with the arrival of the Mussels. The Ottoman Empire’s origins lie in the 14th century and it continued in existence till World War l. An impressive amount of land lay under this empire stretching from Anatolia to Tunisia. This widespread territory led to inevitable distinctive art.
There was plentiful architecture, most notably the Blue Mosque built teen 1609 and 1616. There was also mass production of textiles and vessels. The Ottomans are also widely known for their development of a bright red pigment in ceramics knows as “Zinc Red” which reached its height in the 16th century and started being used widely in pottery and tile-work. During the late 1 5th and 16th century, developments in the Ottoman Empire occurred in every artistic field, with those in calligraphy, architecture and textiles being more significant. It was not only Istanbul which was considered to be a major artistic centre.
Many cities in the region angina from Bursa to Cairo to Kink became renowned for silk and textiles, carpets until 1858, flourished. Painting became a popular expression of art during this period. In fact a ‘McHugh school of painting developed during this time because of the distinctive style the Mussels possessed. Many famous artists took up residence in Saba’s court during whose rule McHugh art reached its peak. McHugh art was influenced by different styles under Exchange who would buy paintings from different parts of the world. The McHugh court had access to European art and prints, styles of which were integrated into Indian art.
All in all, Islamic art over the years has adapted, been influenced by and integrated with different territories and cultures, forming its own distinctive style. Not only was art Just a form of expression but it also showed the grandeur of Islamic dynasties and empires. In most cases it also showed the devotion to religion itself, when, for example, creating calligraphy from the verses of the Quern. Islamic Art is still widely popular , exhibitions of it still being shown in famous museums and artists around the world taking inspiration from it.