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– Race: people who portion physical features. such as skin colour and facial characteristics that are passed on through reproduction – societal building: a social innovation that labels people based on physical visual aspect. – Skin colour. hair texture. and oculus form are illustrations of unequal intervention – Ethnic Group: a group of people who identify with a common national beginning or cultural heritage that includes linguistic communication. geographic roots. nutrient. imposts. traditions. and/or faith.

– Puerto Ricans. Chinese. Serbs. Arabs. Swedes. Hungarians. Jews – Racial-Ethnic Group: people who have typical physical and cultural features. Immigrants – Illegal immigrants do the occupations that most Americans don’t want like clean places and offices. nursemaids and waiter’s assistants. nurses’ Plutos. and pick fruit for low pay Dominant and Minority Groups: – Dominant Group: any physically or culturally typical group that has most economic and political power. the greatest privileges. and the highest societal position.

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– Men are dominant group because they have more position. resources. and power than adult females. – Apartheid: a formal system of racial segregation – Minority: a group of people who may be capable to differential and unequal intervention because of their physical. cultural. and other features such as sex. sexual orientation. faith. ethnicity. or skin colour. – American minorities have fewer picks than dominant group members in happening places and flats because they are less likely to acquire aid from a bank to assist with mortgage. – Patterns of Dominant-Minority Group Relations:

– Genocide: the systematic attempt to kill all members of a peculiar ethnic. spiritual. political. racial. or national group. – Holocaust in Germany – Segregation: the physical and societal separation of dominant and minority groups. – De Facto: informal ; may be voluntary as when members of racial or cultural groups prefer to populate among their ain group. Due to discrimination -De Jure: Legal ; replaced by de facto – Assimilation: the procedure of conforming to the civilization of the dominant group. following its linguistic communication and values. and intermarrying with that group.

– Mexicans are less likely to absorb in the US than immigrants from the Philippines. Vietnam or South Korea because they are more likely to hold entered the state illicitly which cuts them from acquiring a good occupation. most public aid plans. and eventual citizenship – Pluralism: minority groups retain their civilization but have equal societal standing in a society. – The US is pluralistic because it is multicultural. multicolored. and multilingual. Besides. the US has most racial and cultural communities ( “Little Italy” . “Greek Town” . “Little Korea” . “Spanish Harlem” ) live peacefully side by side Some Beginnings of Racial-Ethnic Clash

– Racism: a set of beliefs that one’s ain racial group is of course superior to other groups. – Prejudice: an attitude. positive or negative. toward people because of their rank. – Different from us in race. ethnicity. or faith. Asians are truly difficult workers ; White people can’t be trusted – Stereotype: an oversimplified overdone generalisation about a class of people. – Can be positive ; All African Americans are athletic – Can be negative ; All African Americans are lazy – Ethnocentrism: the belief that one’s ain civilization. society. or group is inherently superior to others. – Reject those outside of our groupþ

– Scapegoats: persons or groups whom people blame for their ain jobs or defects. – They didn’t engage me because the company wants inkinesss ; I didn’t acquire into that college because Asiatic Americans are at the top of the list Minorities are scapegoating marks because they differ in physical visual aspect and excessively powerless to strike back. – Stereotypes. ethnocentrism. and scapegoating are attitudes. but lead to favoritism. – Discrimination: any act that treats people unevenly or below the belt because of their group rank. – Range from societal rebuffs ( non ask foring a carbon monoxide worker to tiffin ) to rejection of occupation application and hate offenses.

– Can be elusive ( non sitting following to person ) or blazing ( racial slurs ) – Individual Discrimination: harmful action on a one-to-one footing by a member of a dominant group against a member of a minority group. – Discrimination while eating in eating houses. shopping. purchasing house. using for occupation. etc. – Institutional Discrimination: unequal intervention and chances that members of minority groups experience as a consequence of the mundane operations of a society’s jurisprudence. regulations. policies. patterns. and imposts. – Heath services ; minorities get lower quality attention than white people even when treated by the same physician.

– Relationship between Prejudice and Discrimination: – Robert Merton described the relationship between bias and favoritism as 4 forms ; 1. Unprejudiced Nondiscriminators: “All-weather liberals” They aren’t prejudiced and don’t discriminate ; they believe in the American credo of freedom 2. Prejudiced Differentiators: “Active Bigots” They are prejudiced and do know apart. They are willing to interrupt Torahs to show beliefs 3. Unprejudiced Differentiators: “Fair-weather liberals” ; They aren’t prejudiced but they discriminate because its in their ain ego involvement to make so 4.

Prejudiced Nondiscrimination: “Timid Bigots” They are prejudiced but don’t discriminate. Major Racial and Cultural Groups in the US – European Americans: immigrants from southern and eastern Europe ; they viewed fledglings as dirty. lazy. and barbarian because they differ in linguistic communication. faith and imposts. – Latinos: many Latin americans who were professionals in their native land merely happen low-income occupations in the US. They frequently have a difficult clip to both work and larn English good plenty to go through tests to go physicians. attorneies. and comptrollers. Many are successful though.

Earn better hourly rewards because they are older. better educated. and more likely to be employed in building than agribusiness. – African Americans: They are successful. A 3rd of all black families earn incomes of $ 50. 000 or more. – Asiatic Americans: the most successful Asiatic Americans are those who speak English comparatively good and have high instruction degrees. Have higher educational degrees than any other US racial-ethnic groups. Most likely to be concentrated in extremely skilled businesss like information engineering. scientific discipline. technology. and medical specialty.

– American Indians: they are non immigrants. they have been in the US longer than any other group. They have made considerable economic advancement by take a firm standing on self- finding and the rights of folks to run their ain personal businesss. Most of them work in building and fix. care. and personal and laundry services. – Middle Eastern Americans: one of the most diverse and complex combinations of geographic. historical. spiritual. lingual. and even racial topographic points on Earth. Tend to be better educated and wealthier than other Americans. Well incorporate into American life.

Three of four speak merely English at place or talk it good and more than half are householders. Sociological Explanations of Racial-Ethnic Inequality – Functionalism: ( macro ) Prejudice and Discrimination can be dysfunctional. but they provide benefits for dominant groups and stabilise society. – Conflict: ( macro ) Powerful groups maintain their advantages and perpetuate racial-ethnic inequality chiefly through economic development – Primary Labor Market: held chiefly by white workers. supply better rewards. wellness and pension benefits. and some step of occupation securityþ

– Secondary Labor Market: ( fast-food employees ) are mostly minorities and easy paid. their rewards are low. there are a few benefits and working conditions are hapless. – Feminist: ( macro and micro ) Minority adult females suffer from the combined effects of racism and sexism. – Gendered Racism: the imbrication and cumulative effects of inequality due to racism and sexism. – Symbolic Interactionism: ( micro ) Hostile attitudes toward minorities. which are learned. can be reduced through concerted interracial and interethnic contacts.

– Attitudes toward dominant and minority groups through labeling and selective perceptual experience can increase bias and favoritism. – Contact Hypothesis: the thought that more people get to cognize members of a minority group personally. the less likely they are to be prejudiced against that group Interracial and Interethnic Relationships: – Miscegenation: matrimony or sexual dealingss between a adult male and a adult female of different races. – The addition in intermarriage reflects many interconnected factors both macro and micro that include mundane contact and altering attitudesþ

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