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Explain the term “Technofact. ” How can it be used to specify Technology. and Management of Technology? Explain the value and advantage of the term Technofact. compared to other definitions and common understanding about engineering. Explain the failings. losing elements. and contradictions in this term. Technofact is a consistent object created by worlds. By consistent I refer to any merchandise ( touchable or practical ) of which the purpose of its human Godhead was to do more of precisely the same. utilizing the same methodological analysis.

Once we’ve defined technofact. we are able to concentrate the term engineering around this entity. and to specify it as the capableness of making technofacts ( or the human capableness of making consistent objects ) . Technology is non the proficient object itself but instead the capableness of making it over on over once more. Other Fieldss of scientific discipline dressed ore on understanding and garnering cognition around the entity that is in the centre of the scientific discipline in inquiry while the engineering “science” is a capableness. which is more than simply an apprehension.

On top of the cognition gathered. the term encapsulates the creative activity itself. the know-how. The different facets of the agencies to set up that capableness ought to be coordinated and managed. therefore. direction of engineering can merely be defined if we separate the term engineering from the objects. the technofacts. as one can non pull off objects. Most of the traditional definitions of the term engineering are either inaccurate or excessively wide. Inaccurate when the definition refer to objects ( tools. merchandises ) as the engineering itself.

Too wide when the definition refer to any human activity ( van Wyk ) . which might include signifiers of art that can non be considered as a engineering. Another wide attack can be found in definitions that consider any nature use as a engineering ( is navigation by stars a engineering? ) . There are three instances in which I find trouble with the term technofact as the cardinal entity that engineering trades with: 1. When the merchandise has an familial random component: See a computing machine plan that creates random tunes ( or drawings ) pleasant to the human ear ( or oculus ) . based on some mathematical regulations.

The plan itself is evidently a practical technofact. but are the new tunes or drawings created by it can besides be considered technofacts? Obviously. they are being created over and over once more utilizing the same engineering. but each clip the plan produces something different. 2. When the merchandise is a natural object or resource: For illustration in agribusiness. Carrots can non be considered technofacts. but there is evidently a engineering to turn carrots. The tools which are used in the procedure ( a plough or a combine ) are technofacts. which husbandmans use to bring forth the harvest itself. but they are non the consistent merchandise the engineering trades with.

Another illustrations can be mining engineerings. The terminal merchandise is the extracted stuff. which can non be considered a technofact. 3. When the merchandise is an action: For illustration. the capableness to raise heavy weights. A Crane is a technofact. but it is non the consistent object this specific engineering enable to reproduce. The consistent object in this instance is non an object but instead an action. What is a “Technology-Based Organization” ? Give an illustration for a TBO and non-TBO. Can a company be a TBO for a limited clip? Explain and give an illustration.

A engineering based organisation is an organisation that uses engineering to make economic value or to make a competitory concern advantage over other viing organisations. The organisation can be continuously prosecuting technological betterments. fabricating technofacts or both. This sort of an organisation will be perpetually considered a TBO. On the other manus a non-TBO organisation can go one for a limited clip. if it incorporates a new engineering to better its procedures. therefore making an advantage over its rivals.

During the procedure of absorbing the engineering and the clip that takes other participants to utilize the same engineering. a non-TBO organisation can be considered a TBO. as it creates economic value utilizing engineering. See an fanciful traditional dairy that used to bring forth milk in the old milking manner. utilizing the farmer’s custodies and a large Nice pail. At some point the husbandman decided to get a milking machine from his applied scientist friend that had late established a milking equipment mill utilizing his ain innovations.

The husbandman installed the machine in his farm and taught his child how to utilize it. so he can peacefully retire. During the following twosome of old ages. the farmer’s child gained an advantage over his neighbour husbandmans. bought more cattles. made a little luck and established a new dairy company ( which he called after his pa ) . Few old ages subsequently. after all the other husbandmans had done the same. the farmer’s child decided to put in digital thermometers in the dairy ( acquired from the really same milking equipment mill ) . and became the taking milk supplier to the full part. with the repute of holding the freshest milk about.

Again. accomplishing an economic advantage utilizing new engineering. This dairy had become a TBO for short periods of clip during its being. while the milking equipment mill that had invented and manufactured the machinery was a TBO throughout the old ages. Explain the term “White Spaces” in the context of technological invention. How could this term be used in an organisation to assist planning and determination doing about invention? White infinites are the two optional spreads between engineerings and applications. The first spread exists when there is a demand in the market but no solution to fit it.

The 2nd spread takes topographic point when there is a engineering out at that place that has the capableness to bring forth a technofact that no 1 knows what to make with. A technofact that did non yet happen the “ultimate product” it enables ( where there’s a manner but there is no “will” ) . Advanced organisation can either make full up the first spread by prosecuting new engineerings to fit the unreciprocated market demands. or they can concentrate their attempts around understanding the potency of bing engineerings and to utilize them to develop new groundbreaking applications.

Outlines the dangers and hazards associated with rapid technological development to society and persons. Are you pessimistic or optimistic about it? What can and should we make as a society and as persons to profit from engineering and avoid the hazards. The dangers and hazards that rapid emerging engineerings incorporate can come in many ways. forms and signifiers harmonizing to the engineering sphere.

From the lose of privateness through wellness jeopardizing. moral issues and mass devastation arms. they all have one thing in common – the rate of the engineering acceptance and development has become faster than the rate of the ability to comprehensively understanding its deductions. Successful engineerings are distributing fleetly. geting life of their ain and “forcing” people to utilize them in order to last in the modern society. Even if a certain single decides to arise and non to utilize a specific engineering straight. it still might alter the environment this individual lives in. to impact and jeopardize im merely the same ( e. g. cellular phones ) .

The lose of freedom inflicted by some engineerings is a large monetary value of its ain that society and persons have to pay. History tells us that terror from new engineerings had ever existed. and we are likely sing the same undue fright of the unknown that the auto inflicted on society a hundred old ages ago. But the job with history is that it can merely explicate the yesteryear. while the present is unlike anything humanity imagined before.

I don’t believe that governmental ordinances taking to keep engineering can work in the long tally. but in order to command at least some of the hazards. authoritiess should collaborate globally on some issues to modulate engineerings similar to the manner new medical specialties and drugs are treated. As persons. we must take duty for our wellness and moral values. to cover with it at all times among ourselves. to be cognizant of the hazards we are taking and non to go unsighted nuts for anything new. Still. I’m pessimistic as for the capableness of world to make that and get the better of its basic selfish nature.

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