Stockholm syndrome refers to a group of psychological symptoms that occur in some individuals in a prisoner or surety state of affairs. It has received considerable media promotion in recent old ages because it has been used to explicate the behaviour of such well-known snatch victims as Patty Hearst ( 1974 ) and Elizabeth Smart ( 2002 ) . The term takes its name from a bank robbery in Stockholm. Sweden. in August 1973. The robber took four employees of the bank ( three adult females and one adult male ) into the vault with him and kept them surety for 131 hours.
After the employees were eventually released. they appeared to hold formed a self-contradictory emotional bond with their capturer ; they told newsmans that they saw the constabulary as their enemy instead than the bank robber. and that they had positive feelings toward the felon. The syndrome was foremost named by Nils Bejerot ( 1921–1988 ) . a medical professor who specialized in dependence research and served as a psychiatric adviser to the Swedish constabulary during the draw at the bank. Stockholm syndrome is besides known as Survival Identification Syndrome.
Description Stockholm syndrome is considered a complex reaction to a awful state of affairs. and experts do non hold wholly on all of its characteristic characteristics or on the factors that make some people more susceptible than others to developing it. One ground for the dissension is that it would be unethical to prove theories about the syndrome by experimenting on human existences. The information for understanding the syndrome are derived from existent surety state of affairss since 1973 that differ well from one another in footings of location. figure of people involved. and clip frame.
Another beginning of dissension concerns the extent to which the syndrome can be used to explicate other historical phenomena or more commonplace types of opprobrious relationships. Many research workers believe that Stockholm syndrome helps to explicate certain behaviours of subsisters of World War II concentration cantonments ; members of spiritual cults ; battered married womans ; incest subsisters ; and physically or emotionally abused kids every bit good as individuals taken surety by felons or terrorists. Most experts. nevertheless. agree that Stockholm syndrome has three cardinal features:
•The sureties have negative feelings about the constabulary or other governments. The sureties have positive feelings toward their capturer ( s ) . •The capturers develop positive feelings toward the sureties. Causes & A ; symptoms Stockholm syndrome does non impact all sureties ( or individuals in comparable state of affairss ) ; in fact. a Federal Bureau of Investigation ( FBI ) survey of over 1200 hostage-taking incidents found that 92 % of the sureties did non develop Stockholm syndrome. FBI research workers so interviewed flight attenders who had been taken surety during airplane highjackings. and concluded that three factors are necessary for the syndrome to develop: •The crisis state of affairs lasts for several yearss or longer. The surety takers remain in contact with the sureties ; that is. the sureties are non placed in a separate room. •The surety takers show some kindness toward the sureties or at least chorus from harming them. Hostages abused by capturers typically feel anger toward them and make non normally develop the syndrome. In add-on. people who frequently feel helpless in other nerve-racking life state of affairss or are willing to make anything in order to last seem to be more susceptible to developing Stockholm syndrome if they are taken surety.
Peoples with Stockholm syndrome report the same symptoms as those diagnosed with posttraumatic emphasis upset ( PTSD ) : insomnia. incubuss. general crossness. trouble concentrating. being easy startled. feelings of unreality or confusion. inability to bask antecedently enjoyable experiences. increased misgiving of others. and flashbacks. Diagnosis Stockholm syndrome is a descriptive term for a form of get bying with a traumatic state of affairs instead than a diagnostic class. Most head-shrinkers would utilize the diagnostic standards for acute emphasis upset or posttraumatic emphasis upset when measuring a individual with Stockholm syndrome.
Treatment Treatment of Stockholm syndrome is the same as for PTSD. most normally a combination of medicines for short-run sleep perturbations and psychotherapeutics for the longer-term symptoms. Cardinal footings Coping — In psychological science. a term that refers to a person’s forms of response to emphasis. Some forms of get bying may take down a person’s hazard of developing Stockholm syndrome in a surety state of affairs. Flashback — The re-emergence of a traumatic memory as a graphic remembrance of sounds. images. and esthesiss associated with the injury.
The individual holding the flashback typically feels as if they are live overing the event. Flashbacks were foremost described by physicians handling combat veterans of World War I ( 1914–1918 ) . Designation with an attacker — In psychological science. an unconscious procedure in which a individual adopts the position or behaviour forms of a capturer or maltreater. Some research workers consider it a partial account of Stockholm syndrome. Regression — In psychological science. a return to earlier. normally infantile or childish. forms of idea or behaviour. Syndrome — A set of symptoms that occur together.
Prognosis The forecast for recovery from Stockholm syndrome is by and large good. but the length of intervention needed depends on several variables. These include the nature of the surety state of affairs ; the length of clip the crisis lasted. and the single patient’s general header manner and old experience ( s ) of injury. Prevention Prevention of Stockholm syndrome at the degree of the larger society includes farther development of crisis intercession accomplishments on the portion of jurisprudence enforcement every bit good as schemes to forestall snatch or hostage-taking incidents in the first topographic point.
Prevention at the single degree is hard as of the early 2000s because research workers have non been able to place all the factors that may put some individuals at greater hazard than others ; in add-on. they disagree on the specific psychological mechanisms involved in Stockholm syndrome. Some regard the syndrome as a signifier of arrested development ( return to childish forms of idea or action ) while others explain it in footings of emotional palsy ( “frozen fright” ) or designation with the attacker.