The Mongolia’s conquest is one of the most peculiar parts about history. How horse nomads from the steppes were able to create the largest land empire in human history is a question that historians have tried to address for a long time. Mongolia’s were so successful in their conquests because they were created from their steppe lifestyle of horse and bow and received the uniting leader that they needed in 1204, Genesis Khan. The Mongols were first recorded in 618-907 in China. Their word for “Mongol” meaner brave fighter who knows no fear (“The Mongols Conquests… ). The Mongolia lifestyle was one of great hardship and contributed to their success. Mongolia’s were shamanistic like many other steppe tribes and worshipped the gods of the plains and the sun (Barnes). Also, Mongolia is set geographically in the Gobi desert which is considered one of the harshest environments in the world. These factors all contributed towards Mongolia’s remaining nomadic and barbaric. This nomadic way of life made it so that Mongolia’s were always in small units and in order to survive, had to become very proficient in what they do (Barnes).
Because of this need to hunt, Mongolia’s were taught to use a compound bow, often having a 130 pound draw, from a very young age. According to Barnes, this mastery of horse and bow from a young age distinguished the Mongolia’s from other steppe tribes. The Algerian, masters of bows themselves, called the Mongolia’s the “Nation of Archers”. The danger from even the unrecognized Mongols is illustrated by top Chinese foreign policy at the time which was to try to keep Mongolia’s warring with themselves. This fatal flaw of the Mongolia’s would come to an end when Genesis Khan united the Mongolia tribes.
According to Capeskin, Tempting was born too chieftain in 1162. He is said to have been born with a black blood clot in his hand, a sign that he would become a great warrior. Ata trip to a neighboring tribe when Tempting was in, his father was killed. Tempting was exiled with his family and made a slave. He barely survived and escaped later on. After his escape, his new adopted father took him under his wing and Tempting started showing his ambitions. At 27 years old, Tempting held a “guilt” and was elected khan. His adopted father helped with politics and Tempting was a successful leader.
In 1204, Tempting defeated the Maine tribe which was the only major obstacle in his way of uniting Mongolia and was crowned Genesis Khan. After this unification, China’s, specifically the Jinn and Tang Xi Ixia dynasty’s, worst fears began being realized. As Barnes noted, Genesis was an excellent leader and developed many amazing strategies. According to Barnes, probably the most effective tactic was “nerve”. This was an encirclement and was used to instill fear. This was practiced both on the tattletale and on a large, regional, scale. The “Arrow Storm” was another great tactic developed by Genesis Khan.
This would be the Mongols using their skill with bow and arrow to keep distance from the enemy and raining arrows into a “kill zone”. It created chaos on the battlefield and rained terror down on to their enemies. With the agility trot their amazing skill Witt horses, the Mongolia’s moved so taste that the Chinese believed that Mongolia forces were 10 times larger than they actually were. This installment of fear is one of the most famous and most genius of Mongol tactics. The terror of the Mongols is what sets the Mongolia’s apart from any other famous conquerors.
Everywhere the Mongols went, the local populace was quick to either die or surrender (Barnes). Genesis’ terror is shown throughout all of the staging ground of wars and battles that were fought. Local populaces that fought back were massacred. This destruction is shown in Hungary, in that 50% on the total population there were killed (Barnes). A quote from Genesis Khan that shows is attitude towards conquering is, “The greatest happiness is to scatter your enemy, to drive him before oh, to see his cities reduced to ashes, to see those who love him shrouded in tears, and to gather into your bosom his wives and daughters. (Taylor 63). Mongolia’s were successful because of their lifestyle and their leader. As we can see with accounts from those conquered and who met face to face with the Mongolia’s, they were the most terrifying conquering force because of their agility with the horse and accuracy with the bow. None of this would have been possible without an amazing leader and tactician that is Genesis Khan. He revolutionized the already great warriors of the Steppe with tactics such as the nerve and arrow storm and led them into a storm of terror across the Eurasian continent.